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period

Overview

This page has 28 definitions of period in English, Serbo-Croatian, and Swedish. Period is a noun, an adjective, interjection and verb. Examples of how to use period in a sentence are shown. Also define these 52 related words and terms: length, time, epoch, era, Canada, American English, punctuation, sentence, abbreviation, periodic, phenomenon, recur, wave, rotation, planet, menstruation, school, sports, ice hockey, overtime, medicine, disease, end, conclusion, rhetoric, moment, point, stage, chemistry, row, periodic table, geology, subdivision, genetics, Drosophila, gene, gene product, regulation, circadian rhythm, music, phrase, antecedent phrase, consequent phrase, mathematics, interval, periodic function, sequence, repeating decimal, historical, end of story, conclude, and period.

English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle English periode, from Middle French periode, from Medieval Latin periodus, from Ancient Greek περίοδος (períodos, circuit, period of time, path around), from περί- (perí-, around) + ὁδός (hodós, way). Displaced native Middle English tide (interval, period, season), from Old English tīd (time, period, season), Middle English elde (age, period), from Old English ieldu (age, period of time).

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈpɪə.ɹi.əd/, /ˈpɪə.ɹɪ.əd/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈpɪɚ.i.əd/, /ˈpɪɹ.i.əd/

Noun

period (plural periods)

  1. A length of time. [from 17th c.]
    There was a period of confusion following the announcement.
    You'll be on probation for a six-month period.
  2. A period of time in history seen as a single coherent entity; an epoch, era. [from 16th c.]
    Food rationing continued in the post-war period.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 7, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      With some of it on the south and more of it on the north of the great main thoroughfare that connects Aldgate and the East India Docks, St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London.
    • Era definition
      A time period of indeterminate length, generally more than one year. (1 of 2 era definitions)
  3. (now chiefly Canada, US) The punctuation mark “.” (indicating the ending of a sentence or marking an abbreviation).
    • 2002, Zadie Smith, The Autograph Man, Penguin Books (2003), page 299:
      ‘You know, a period? The black spot at the end of a sentence — what do you call them over there?’
  4. (figuratively) An decisive end to something; a stop.
    • 1887, H. Rider Haggard, She: A History of Adventure[1]:
      My sufferings, physical and mental, are more than I can bear, and when such small arrangements as I have to make for your future well-being are completed it is my intention to put a period to them.
  5. The length of time during which the same characteristics of a periodic phenomenon recur, such as the repetition of a wave or the rotation of a planet. [from 17th c.]
  6. Female menstruation; an episode of this. [from 18th c.]
    When she is on her period, she prefers not to go swimming.
  7. A section of an artist's, writer's (etc.) career distinguished by a given quality, preoccupation etc. [from 19th c.]
    This is one of the last paintings Picasso created during his Blue Period.
  8. Each of the divisions into which a school day is split, allocated to a given subject or activity. [from 19th c.]
    I have math class in second period.
  9. (sports, chiefly ice hockey) Each of the intervals, typically three, of which a game is divided. [from 19th c.]
    Gretzky scored in the last minute of the second period.
    • Ice Hockey definition
      A form of hockey played on an ice rink with a puck, rather than a ball.
  10. (sports, chiefly ice hockey) One or more additional intervals to decide a tied game, an overtime period.
    They won in the first overtime period.
  11. (obsolete, medicine) The length of time for a disease to run its course. [15th-19th c.]
  12. An end or conclusion; the final point of a process etc. [from 16th c.]
  13. (rhetoric) A complete sentence, especially one expressing a single thought or making a balanced, rhythmic whole. [from 16th c.]
    • 1641, Ben Jonson, Timber
      Periods are beautiful when they are not too long.
    • 1644, John Milton, Aeropagitica:
      that such iron moulds as these shall have autority to knaw out the choicest periods of exquisitest books, and to commit such a treacherous fraud against the orphan remainders of worthiest men after death, the more sorrow will belong to that haples race of men, whose misfortune it is to have understanding.
    • 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Penguin 2004, p. 118:
      In declamatory periods Dr Fordyce spins out Rousseau's eloquence […].
    • 1853, Charles Dickens, Bleak House, ch 1:
      A very superior gentleman, Mr. Kenge. Truly eloquent indeed. Some of his periods quite majestic!
    • 1926, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Land of Mist[2]:
      He writhed for twenty minutes under the flowery and eulogistic periods of the president, and rose himself in the state of confused indignation which the Briton feels when he is publicly approved.
  14. (obsolete) A specific moment during a given process; a point, a stage. [17th-19th c.]
    • 1720, Alexander Pope, translating Homer, Iliad, Book IV (note 125):
      The Death of Patroclus was the most eminent Period; and consequently the most proper Time for such Games.
  15. (chemistry) A row in the periodic table of the elements. [from 19th c.]
    • Chemistry definition
      The branch of natural science that deals with the composition and constitution of substances and the changes that they undergo as a consequence of alterations in the constitution of their molecules. (1 of 3 chemistry definitions)
    • Row definition
      A line of objects, often regularly spaced, such as seats in a theatre, vegetable plants in a garden etc. (1 of 2 row definitions)
  16. (geology) A subdivision of an era, typically lasting from tens to hundreds of millions of years, see Appendix: Geologic timescale.
    These fossils are from the Jurassic period.
    • Geology definition
      The science that studies the structure of the earth (or other planets), together with its origin and development, especially by examination of its rocks. (1 of 2 geology definitions)
  17. (genetics) A Drosophila gene, the gene product of which is involved in regulation of the circadian rhythm.
    • 1988 April 1, “Antibodies to the period gene product of drosophila reveal diverse tissue distribution and rhythmic changes in the visual system”, in Neuron, volume 1, number 2, page 141:
      Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the period gene product, which influences biological rhythms in D. melanogaster, by using small synthetic peptides from the per sequence as immunogens.
    • 2009 November 20, “Gene Dmel\per”, in FlyBase[3] (Gene Report (database record)), The FlyBase Consortium, retrieved 7 December:
      Symbol: Dmel\per / Species: D. melanogaster / Name: period
    • Circadian Rhythm definition
      The "internal body clock" that regulates the (roughly) 24-hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants.
  18. (music) Two phrases (an antecedent and a consequent phrase).
  19. (mathematics) The length of an interval over which a periodic function, periodic sequence or repeating decimal repeats; often the least such length.
    • Repeating Decimal definition
      A decimal representation of a real number that, at some point, becomes periodic (and repeats some sequence of digits infinitely)
  20. (archaic) End point, conclusion.
    • 1590, Robert Greene, Greenes Mourning Garment, London: Thomas Newman, “The Shepheards Tale,” p. 17,[4]
      As thus all gazed on hir, so she glaunced hir lookes on all, surueying them as curiously, as they noted hir exactly, but at last she set downe her period on the face of Alexis []
    • c. 1590, William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part 2, Act III, Scene 1,[5]
      And if my death might make this island happy,
      And prove the period of their tyranny,
      I would expend it with all willingness:
    • 1629, John Beaumont, “A Description of Love” in Bosworth-field with a Taste of the Variety of Other Poems, London: Henry Seile, p. 100,[6]
      When Loue thus in his Center ends,
      Desire and Hope, his inward friends
      Are shaken off: while Doubt and Griefe,
      The weakest giuers of reliefe,
      Stand in his councell as the chiefe:
      And now he to his period brought,
      From Loue becomes some other thought.
    • 1651, William Cartwright, The Ordinary, London: Humphrey Moseley, Act III, Scene 5, p. 51,[7]
      Set up an hour-glasse; hee’l go on untill
      The last sand make his Period.

Synonyms

Antonyms

  • (length of time of recurrence of a periodic phenomenon): frequency

Hyponyms

  • pseudoperiod

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Dictionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Adjective

period (not comparable)

  1. Designating anything from a given historical era. (Can we add an example for this sense?)
    a period car
    a period TV commercial
  2. Evoking, or appropriate for, a particular historical period, especially through the use of elaborate costumes and scenery.
    • 2004, Mark Singer, Somewhere in America, Houghton Mifflin, page 70:
      As the guests arrived — there were about a hundred, a majority in period attire — I began to feel out of place in my beige summer suit, white shirt, and red necktie. Then I got over it. I certainly didn't suffer from Confederate-uniform envy.

Interjection

period

  1. (chiefly Canada, US) That's final; that's the end of the matter (analogous to a period ending a sentence); end of story
    I know you don't want to go to the dentist, but your teeth need to be checked, period!
    • End Of Story definition
      That is as much as I know, am prepared to reveal or am willing to say about the subject. (1 of 2 end of story definitions)

Synonyms

Translations

See also

Punctuation

Further reading

Verb

period (third-person singular simple present periods, present participle perioding, simple past and past participle perioded)

  1. (obsolete, intransitive) To come to a period; to conclude.
    • 1623, Owen Feltham, Resolves: Divine, Moral, Political
      For you may period upon this, that where there is the most pity for others, there is the greatest misery in the party pitied.
  2. (obsolete, transitive, rare) To put an end to.

Anagrams


Serbo-Croatian

Etymology

From Latin periodus, from Ancient Greek περίοδος (períodos).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /perǐod/
  • Hyphenation: pe‧ri‧od

Noun

perìod m (Cyrillic spelling перѝод)

  1. period (of time)

Declension

References

  • period” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Swedish

Pronunciation

Noun

period c

  1. a period, a limited amount of time
  2. (ice hockey, floorball) period

Declension

Declension of period 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative period perioden perioder perioderna
Genitive periods periodens perioders periodernas

Related terms