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Tianhe (space station module)

Component of China's space station

Top 10 Tianhe (space station module) related articles

Tianhe (天和号核心舱) [1][2]
Tianhe module before launch
  • Tianhe Core Module (TCM)
  • TH (TianHe)
Mission typeTiangong space station
COSPAR ID2021-035A
SATCAT no.48274
Websitehttp://en.cmse.gov.cn/ (unsecured site)
Mission duration10 years (planned)
2 days (in progress)
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeStation Core Module
Launch mass22,600 kg (49,800 lb) [3][4][5][6]
Dimensions16.6 m (54 ft) long
4.2 m (14 ft) diameter [7]
Start of mission
Launch date29 April 2021, 03:23:15 UTC [8]
RocketLong March 5B
Launch siteWenchang Spacecraft Launch Site, LC-101
ContractorChina Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit [7]
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Perigee altitude380 km (240 mi)
Apogee altitude380 km (240 mi)
Period92.00 minutes
Literal meaning"Heavenly Harmony"

The Tianhe (Chinese: 天和; pinyin: Tiānhé; lit. 'Harmony of the heavens'),[1][2] code name TH, or Tianhe Core Module (TCM) is the first module to launch of the Chinese large modular space station. It was launched into orbit on 29 April 2021,[8] as the first launch of the final phase of Tiangong program (Project 921), part of the Chinese space program.[4][6]

The TCM follows in the footsteps of Salyut, Almaz, Kosmos 557, Skylab, Mir, International Space Station, Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2 space stations.[9] It is the first module of a third-generation Chinese modular space station. Other examples of modular station projects include the Soviet/Russian Mir, Russian OPSEK, and the International Space Station. Operations will be controlled from the Beijing Aerospace Command and Control Center in the People's Republic of China.[6]

In 2018, a fullscale mockup of TCM was publicly presented at China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition in Zhuhai.[10][11] In October 2020, China selected 18 new astronauts ahead of space station construction to participate in the country's space station project.[12]

Tianhe (space station module) Intro articles: 10

Functions and systems

The Core Module provides life support and living quarters for three crew members, and provides guidance, navigation, and orientation control for the station. The module also provides the station's power, propulsion, and life support systems. The module consists of three sections: the habitable living quarter, the nonhabitable service section, and a docking hub.[6]

The living quarters will contain a kitchen and toilet, fire control equipment, air processing and control equipment, computers, scientific apparatus, and ground communications equipment.[6] Similar to the MIR Lyappa arm, it will also have a bigger robotic arm, so it can move subsequent modules to different ports of the core module.[6][13]

Electrical power is provided by two steerable solar power arrays, which use photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into electricity. Energy is stored to power the station when it passes into the Earth's shadow. Tianzhou resupply ships will replenish fuel for the module's propulsion engines for station-keeping, to counter the effects of atmospheric drag.[14]

Tianhe (space station module) Functions and systems articles: 7


Panel views of the Chinese Tianhe space station core module

Wang Wenbao, director of China Manned Space Engineering Office (CMSEO), the country's human spaceflight agency, has said China has established "a good working relationship" with space agencies in Russia, France, Germany and other countries.[15][16] With a long history of technology transfer with Russia, Chinese space assets are compatible with Russian orbital hardware. The MARS-500 collaborative study between China, Russia and Europe prepares for a crewed mission to Mars.[17]

The forward docking hub allows the core module to be docked with four other space station visiting spacecraft, including two experimental modules, a cargo ship Tianzhou spacecraft, and a Shenzhou spacecraft.[13] The axial (forward-facing) and nadir (Earth-facing) port of the module will be fitted with rendezvous equipment. A mechanical arm similar to the Russian Lyappa arm used on the Mir space station will be fitted to each of the future experiment modules. The axial port on the docking hub will be the primary docking port. When new modules arrive, they will first dock here, then the mechanical arm shall attach and move the module to a radial port. Crew and supply ships from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center will dock to either of the axial ports of the module, as well as the nadir port. The zenith (space facing) port has been modified to act as the station’s extravehicular activity (EVA) hatch, as the spherical docking hub is also the EVA airlock.[13]

The first generation space stations such as Salyut 1 and NASA's Skylab stations were not designed for re-supply, while Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and Mir had more than one docking port and were designed to be resupplied routinely during crewed operation.[18] The TCM as a modular station can allow the mission to be changed over time, and new modules can be added or removed from the existing structure, allowing greater flexibility.[19] It is designed for replenishment of consumables and has a service life of at least 10 years.[13][20]

The length of the module is 16.6 m (54 ft). It is cylindrical with a maximum diameter of 4.2 m (14 ft) and an on-orbit mass of 22,600 kg (49,800 lb).[7]

Tianhe (space station module) Structure articles: 14


Launch of Tianhe

On 14 January 2021, CMSEO announced the beginning of the construction phase for China's three-module space station. The core module, Tianhe ("Harmony of the heavens"), passed a flight acceptance review. This core module provides living space and life support for astronauts and houses the outpost's power and propulsion elements.[21][22]

Tianhe was launched on 29 April 2021, at 03:23:15 UTC atop a Long March 5B launch vehicle from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site.[7] The first spacecraft scheduled to visit the Tianhe Core Module is the Tianzhou 2 cargo resupply spacecraft in May 2021, followed by Shenzhou 12, carrying a crew of three to the station in June 2021.[8] Tianzhou 3 and Shenzhou 13 are also scheduled to visit the station in September and October 2021 respectively.[23][24]

Tianhe (space station module) Launch articles: 6

See also


  1. ^ a b "China launches space station core module Tianhe". Xinhua. 29 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Planned space station details made public". China Daily. 26 April 2018. The core module, Tianhe, or Harmony of Heavens
  3. ^ "China expects to complete space station by 2023". China Daily. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  4. ^ a b "中国载人航天工程标识及空间站、货运飞船名称正式公布" [CMSE logo and space station and cargo ship name officially announced] (in Chinese). China Manned Space Engineering. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  5. ^ Ping, Wu (June 2016). "China Manned Space Programme: Its Achievements and Future Developments" (PDF). China Manned Space Agency. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Ping, Wu (23 April 2016). "空间站工程研制进展" [Space Station Project Development Progress] (PDF). China Manned Space Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d "China assembling rocket to launch first space station module". SpaceNews. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Barbosa, Rui C. (1 March 2021). "China preparing to build Tiangong station in 2021, complete by 2022". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  9. ^ "Twenty years after deorbit, Mir's legacy lives on in today's space projects". NASA Spaceflight. NASA. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  10. ^ "航天控制中心" [Aerospace Control Center] (in Chinese). China Manned Space Engineering. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  11. ^ "天和一号核心舱(TianHe-1)" [TianHe core module (TianHe-1)]. chinaspaceflight.com (in Chinese). 7 June 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  12. ^ "China selects 18 new astronauts ahead of space station construction". SpaceNews. 2 October 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d "China launches Tianhe module, start of ambitious two-year station construction effort". NASA Spaceflight. NASA. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  14. ^ David, Leonard (7 March 2011). "China Details Ambitious Space Station Goals". SPACE.com. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  15. ^ "Official Details 11-year Path to Developing China's Own Space Station". SpaceNews. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  16. ^ Klamper, Amy (12 October 2010). "Human Spaceflight On the Agenda for NASA Chief's China Trip". Space.com. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  17. ^ "China's Space and Counterspace Capabilities and Activities" (PDF). USCC. The U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  18. ^ "Space Station Evolution: 6 Amazing Orbital Outposts". Space. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  19. ^ "China's Space Station and the ISS Compared As Tianhe Module Arrives in Earth's Orbit". Newsweek. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  20. ^ "China launches Tianhe, future living quarters for space station planned for 2022". SCMP. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  21. ^ Wall, Mike (7 January 2021). "China plans to launch core module of space station this year". SPACE.com. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  22. ^ Jones, Andrew (10 February 2021). "China's first space station module is ready for flight". SPACE.com. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  23. ^ "【2021年9月待定】长征七号 • 天舟三号货运飞船 • LongMarch 7 Y4 • Tianzhou-3" (in Chinese). spaceflightfans.cn. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  24. ^ "长征二号F/G Y13 • 神舟十三号载人飞船 • LongMarch 2F/G Y13 • Shenzhou-13" (in Chinese). spaceflightfans.cn. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.

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