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São Paulo

Largest city in Brazil

Top 10 São Paulo related articles

São Paulo
Município de São Paulo
Municipality of São Paulo
Flag
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle); Sampa; "Pauliceia"
Motto(s): 
"Non ducor, duco"  (Latin)
"I am not led, I lead"
Location in the state of São Paulo
São Paulo
Location in Brazil
São Paulo
São Paulo (South America)
Coordinates: 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633Coordinates: 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633
Country  Brazil
State São Paulo
FoundedJanuary 25, 1554
Named forPaul the Apostle
Government
 • TypeMayor-council
 • BodyMunicipal Chamber of São Paulo
 • MayorBruno Covas[1] (PSDB)
 • Vice MayorRicardo Nunes (MDB)
Area
 • Megacity1,521.11 km2 (587.3039 sq mi)
 • Urban
11,698 km2 (4,517 sq mi)
 • Metro
7,946.96 km2 (3,068.338 sq mi)
 • Macrometropolis53,369.61 km2 (20,606.12 sq mi)
Elevation
760 m (2,493.4 ft)
Population
 (2020)[3][4]
12,325,232
 • Rank1st in Brazil
 • Density8,005.25/km2 (20,733.5/sq mi)
 • Urban
476,187
 • Metro
776,187[2] (Greater São Paulo)
 • Metro density2,714.45/km2 (7,030.4/sq mi)
 • Macrometropolis
33,652,991 [5]
Demonym(s)Portuguese: paulistano
Time zoneUTC−03:00 (BRT)
Postal Code (CEP)
01000-000
Area code(s)+55 11
HDI (2016)0.843 [6] very high (2nd)
PPP 2018US$191 billion [7] (1st)
Per CapitaUS$56,418 [7] (1st)
Nominal 2018US$274 billion [7] (1st)
Per CapitaUS$22,502[7] (1st)
WebsiteSão Paulo, SP

São Paulo (/ˌs ˈpl/; Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃w̃ ˈpawlu] ( listen) (Portuguese for Saint Paul)) is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city (as listed by the GaWC) and the most populous city in Brazil, the Americas, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, São Paulo is the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world. The municipality is also the world's 4th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil. It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment.[8] The name of the city honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo (Campinas, Santos, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos) created the São Paulo Macrometropolis,[9] a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.[10]

Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere,[11] the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange. Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world,[12] representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP[13] and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil,[14] and has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005, as measured by the number of science papers published in journals.[15]

The metropolis is also home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, Banespa, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural, economic and political influence nationally and internationally. It is home to monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, and the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience. The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world.[16][16]

São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab, Italian, Japanese, and Portuguese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado, Bixiga, and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is also home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews.[17] In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries.[18] People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos. The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead."[19] The city, which is also colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle), is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 1950 and the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.

São Paulo Intro articles: 68

History

Early Indigenous Period

Historical affiliations

The region of modern-day São Paulo, then known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim, Guaianas, and Guarani. Other tribes also lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region.[20]

The region was divided in Caciquedoms (chiefdoms) at the time of encounter with the Europeans.[21] The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Ipiranga, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Piratininga, Itaquaquecetuba, Cotia, Itapevi, Barueri, Embu-Guaçu etc...

Colonial period

Founding of São Paulo, 1913 painting by Antonio Parreiras
Courtyard of the College, Pátio do Colégio, in the Historic Center of São Paulo. At this location, the city was founded in 1554. The current building is a reconstruction made in the late 20th century, based on the Jesuit college and church that were erected at the site in 1653.

The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554. The Jesuit college of twelve priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Anhangabaú and Tamanduateí rivers.[22]

They first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity. The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar mountain range, called by the Indians "Serra Paranapiacaba."

The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus:

The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college. It was then named "College of St. Paul Piratininga". The new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups. It was renamed Vila de São Paulo, belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente.

For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived largely through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives. For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Piraiquê" (Piaçaguera today), because of frequent Indian raids along it.

On March 22, 1681, the Marquis de Cascais, the donee of the Captaincy of São Vicente, moved the capital to the village of St. Paul, designating it the "Head of the captaincy". The new capital was established on April 23, 1683, with public celebrations.

The Bandeirantes

The Monument to the Bandeiras commemorates the 17th-century bandeiras

In the 17th century, São Paulo was one of the poorest regions of the Portuguese colony. It was also the center of interior colonial development. Because they were extremely poor, the Paulistas could not afford to buy African slaves, as did other Portuguese colonists. The discovery of gold in the region of Minas Gerais, in the 1690s, brought attention and new settlers to São Paulo. The Captaincy of São Paulo and do Ouro was created on November 3, 1709, when the Portuguese crown purchased the Captaincies of São Paulo and Santo Amaro from the former grantees.[23]

Conveniently located in the country, up the steep Serra do Mar sea ridge when traveling from Santos, while also not too far from the coastline, São Paulo became a safe place to stay for tired travelers. The town became a center for the bandeirantes, intrepid explorers who marched into unknown lands in search for gold, diamonds, precious stones, and Indians to enslave.

Domingos Jorge Velho, a notable bandeirante.

The bandeirantes, which could be translated as "flag-bearers" or "flag-followers", organized excursions into the land with the primary purpose of profit and the expansion of territory for the Portuguese crown. Trade grew from the local markets and from providing food and accommodation for explorers. The bandeirantes eventually became politically powerful as a group, and forced the expulsion of the Jesuits from the city of São Paulo in 1640. The two groups had frequently come into conflict because of the Jesuits' opposition to the domestic slave trade in Indians.

On July 11, 1711, the town of São Paulo was elevated to city status. Around the 1720s, gold was found by the pioneers in the regions near what are now Cuiabá and Goiania. The Portuguese expanded their Brazilian territory beyond the Tordesillas Line to incorporate the gold regions.

When the gold ran out in the late 18th century, São Paulo shifted to growing sugar cane. Cultivation of this commodity crop spread through the interior of the Captaincy. The sugar was exported through the Port of Santos. At that time, the first modern highway between São Paulo and the coast was constructed and named the Walk of Lorraine.

Nowadays, the estate that is home to the Governor of the State of São Paulo, located in the city of São Paulo, is called the Palácio dos Bandeirantes (Palace of Bandeirantes), in the neighborhood of Morumbi.

Imperial Period

Monument to Independence in Independence Park, located at the place where then-Prince Pedro proclaimed the independence of Brazil

After Brazil became independent from Portugal in 1822, as declared by Emperor Pedro I where the Monument of Ipiranga is located, he named São Paulo as an Imperial City. In 1827, a law school was founded at the Convent of São Francisco, today part of the University of São Paulo. The influx of students and teachers gave a new impetus to the city's growth, thanks to which the city became the Imperial City and Borough of Students of St. Paul of Piratininga.

The expansion of coffee production was a major factor in the growth of São Paulo, as it became the region's chief export crop and yielded good revenue. It was cultivated initially in the Vale do Paraíba (Paraíba Valley) region in the East of the State of São Paulo, and later on in the regions of Campinas, Rio Claro, São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto.

From 1869 onward, São Paulo was connected to the port of Santos by the Railroad Santos-Jundiaí, nicknamed The Lady. In the late 19th century, several other railroads connected the interior to the state capital. São Paulo became the point of convergence of all railroads from the interior of the state. Coffee was the economic engine for major economic and population growth in the State of São Paulo.

In 1888, the "Golden Law" (Lei Áurea) was sanctioned by Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, abolishing the institution of slavery in Brazil. Slaves were the main source of labor in the coffee plantations until then. As a consequence of this law, and following governmental stimulus towards the increase of immigration, the province began to receive a large number of immigrants, largely Italians, Japanese and Portuguese peasants, many of whom settled in the capital. The region's first industries also began to emerge, providing jobs to the newcomers, especially those who had to learn Portuguese.

Old Republican Period

Luz Station in 1900

By the time Brazil became a republic on November 15, 1889, coffee exports were still an important part of São Paulo's economy. São Paulo grew strong in the national political scene, taking turns with the also rich state of Minas Gerais in electing Brazilian presidents, an alliance that became known as "coffee and milk", given that Minas Gerais was famous for its dairy produce.

During this period, São Paulo went from regional center to national metropolis, becoming industrialized and reaching its first million inhabitants in 1928. Its greatest growth in this period was relative in the 1890s when it doubled its population. The height of the coffee period is represented by the construction of the second Estação da Luz (the present building) at the end of the 19th century and by the Paulista Avenue in 1900, where they built many mansions.[24]

Industrialization was the economic cycle that followed the coffee plantation model. By the hands of some industrious families, including many immigrants of Italian and Jewish origin, factories began to arise and São Paulo became known for its smoky, foggy air. The cultural scene followed modernist and naturalist tendencies in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century. Some examples of notable modernist artists are poets Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade, artists Anita Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral and Lasar Segall, and sculptor Victor Brecheret. The Modern Art Week of 1922 that took place at the Theatro Municipal was an event marked by avant-garde ideas and works of art. In 1929, São Paulo won its first skyscraper, the Martinelli Building.[24]

The modifications made in the city by Antônio da Silva Prado, Baron of Duprat and Washington Luiz, who governed from 1899 to 1919, contributed to the climate Development of the city; Some scholars consider that the entire city was demolished and rebuilt at that time.

São Paulo's main economic activities derive from the services industry – factories are since long gone, and in came financial services institutions, law firms, consulting firms. Old factory buildings and warehouses still dot the landscape in neighborhoods such as Barra Funda and Brás. Some cities around São Paulo, such as Diadema, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André, and Cubatão are still heavily industrialized to the present day, with factories producing from cosmetics to chemicals to automobiles.

Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932

Group of aviators from São Paulo at Campo de Marte Airport in September 1932

This revolution is considered by some historians as the last armed conflict to take place in Brazil's history. On July 9, 1932, the population of São Paulo town rose against a coup d'état by Getúlio Vargas to take the presidential office. The movement grew out of local resentment from the fact that Vargas ruled by decree, unbound by a constitution, in a provisional government. The 1930 coup also affected São Paulo by eroding the autonomy that states enjoyed during the term of the 1891 Constitution and preventing the inauguration of the governor of São Paulo Júlio Prestes in the Presidency of the Republic, while simultaneously overthrowing President Washington Luís, who was governor of São Paulo from 1920 to 1924. These events marked the end of the Old Republic.

The uprising commenced on July 9, 1932, after four protesting students were killed by federal government troops on May 23, 1932. On the wake of their deaths, a movement called MMDC (from the initials of the names of each of the four students killed, Martins, Miragaia, Dráusio and Camargo) started. A fifth victim, Alvarenga, was also shot that night, but died months later.

In a few months, the state of São Paulo rebelled against the federal government. Counting on the solidarity of the political elites of two other powerful states, (Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul), the politicians from São Paulo expected a quick war. However, that solidarity was never translated into actual support, and the São Paulo revolt was militarily crushed on October 2, 1932.

In total, there were 87 days of fighting (July 9 to October 4, 1932 – with the last two days after the surrender of São Paulo), with a balance of 934 official deaths, though non-official estimates report up to 2,200 dead, and many cities in the state of São Paulo suffered damage due to fighting.

There is an obelisk in front of Ibirapuera Park that serves as a memorial to the young men that died for the MMDC. The University of São Paulo's Law School also pays homage to the students that died during this period with plaques hung on its arcades.

São Paulo History articles: 73

Geography

Jaraguá Peak is the highest point in the city, at 1,135 metres (3,724 ft).[25]

São Paulo is located in Southeastern Brazil, in southeastern São Paulo State, approximately halfway between Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. The city is located on a plateau placed beyond the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range" or "Coastal Range"), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,621 ft) above sea level, although being at a distance of only about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. The distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá. Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in its northern area, where the Serra da Cantareira Range reaches a higher elevation and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The region is seismically stable and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded.[26]

Metropolitan area

Satellite view of Greater São Paulo at night

The nonspecific term "Grande São Paulo" ("Greater São Paulo") covers multiple definitions. The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total and a population of 21.1 million[27] inhabitants (as of the 2014 National Census).

The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo is known as the financial, economic, and cultural center of Brazil. Among the largest municipalities, Guarulhos, with a population of more than 1 million people is the biggest one. Several others count more than 100,000 inhabitants, such as São Bernardo do Campo (811,000 inh.) and Santo André (707,000 inh.) in the ABC Region. The ABC Region, comprising Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul in the south of Grande São Paulo, is an important location for industrial corporations, such as Volkswagen and Ford Motors.[28]

Because São Paulo has urban sprawl, it uses a different definition for its metropolitan area called Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo. Analogous to the BosWash definition, it is one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world, with 32 million inhabitants,[29] behind Tokyo, which includes 4 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions and 3 micro-regions.

Hydrography

The Tietê River and its tributary, the Pinheiros River, were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for São Paulo. However, heavy industrial effluents and wastewater discharges in the later 20th century caused the rivers to become heavily polluted. A substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the Tietê river further downstream (near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin.[30]

No large natural lakes exist in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the city's southern outskirts are used for power generation, water storage and leisure activities, such as sailing. The original flora consisted mainly of broadleaf evergreens. Non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, especially the ubiquitous eucalyptus.[31]

The north of the municipality contains part of the 7,917 hectares (19,560 acres) Cantareira State Park, created in 1962, which protects a large part of the metropolitan São Paulo water supply.[32] In 2015, São Paulo experienced a major drought, which led several cities in the state to start a rationing system.[33]

Climate

According to the Köppen classification, the city has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).[34][35] In summer (January through March), the mean low temperature is about 19 °C (66 °F) and the mean high temperatures is near 28 °C (82 °F). In winter, temperatures tend to range between 12 and 22 °C (54 and 72 °F).

The record high temperature was 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) on October 17, 2014[36] and the lowest −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) on June 25, 1918.[37][38] The Tropic of Capricorn, at about 23°27' S, passes through north of São Paulo and roughly marks the boundary between the tropical and temperate areas of South America. Because of its elevation, however, São Paulo experiences a more temperate climate.[39]

Heavy rain and lightning in São Paulo, which has the largest number of lightning incidents amongst Brazilian state capitals.[40]

The city experiences four seasons. The summer is warm and rainy. Autumn and spring are transitional seasons. Winter is the most cold season, with cloudiness around town and frequently polar air masses. Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city. Regions further away from the center and in cities in the metropolitan area, can reach temperatures next to 0 °C (32 °F), or even lower in the winter.

Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1,454 millimetres (57.2 in).[41] It is especially common in the warmer months averaging 219 millimetres (8.6 in) and decreases in winter, averaging 47 millimetres (1.9 in). Neither São Paulo nor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a tropical cyclone and tornadic activity is uncommon. During late winter, especially August, the city experiences the phenomenon known as "veranico" or "verãozinho" ("little summer"), which consists of hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures well above 28 °C (82 °F). On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean. On such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20 °C (68 °F), accompanied by lows often below 15 °C (59 °F), however, summer can be extremely hot when a heat wave hits the city followed by temperatures around 34 °C (93 °F), but in places with greater skyscraper density and less tree cover, the temperature can feel like 39 °C (102 °F), as on Paulista Avenue for example. In the summer of 2014, São Paulo was affected by a heat wave that lasted for almost 4 weeks with highs above 30 °C (86 °F), peeking on 36 °C (97 °F). Secondary to deforestation, groundwater pollution, and climate change, São Paulo is increasingly susceptible to drought and water shortages.[42]

Sunny day in the People's Park

Due to the altitude of the city, there are only few hot nights in São Paulo even in the summer months, with minimum temperatures rarely exceeding 21 °C (70 °F). In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause fairly low temperatures, even in the afternoon.

Afternoons with maximum temperatures ranging between 13 and 15 °C (55 and 59 °F) are common even during the fall and early spring. During the winter, there have been several recent records of cold afternoons, as on July 24, 2013 in which the maximum temperature was 8 °C (46 °F) and the wind chill hit 0 °C (32 °F) during the afternoon.

São Paulo is known for its rapidly changing weather. Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day, similar to Melbourne, Australia. In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold. When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot. When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures. This phenomenon happens usually in the winter.

Climate data for São Paulo (Mirante de Santana, 1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.0
(98.6)
36.4
(97.5)
34.3
(93.7)
33.4
(92.1)
31.7
(89.1)
28.8
(83.8)
30.3
(86.5)
33.0
(91.4)
37.1
(98.8)
37.8
(100.0)
36.3
(97.3)
35.6
(96.1)
37.8
(100.0)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 32.8
(91.0)
32.6
(90.7)
32.3
(90.1)
30.5
(86.9)
28.6
(83.5)
27.2
(81.0)
28.0
(82.4)
30.5
(86.9)
32.3
(90.1)
33.0
(91.4)
32.9
(91.2)
32.4
(90.3)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) 28.2
(82.8)
28.8
(83.8)
28.0
(82.4)
26.2
(79.2)
23.3
(73.9)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
24.1
(75.4)
24.4
(75.9)
25.9
(78.6)
26.9
(80.4)
27.6
(81.7)
25.7
(78.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
23.2
(73.8)
22.4
(72.3)
21.0
(69.8)
18.2
(64.8)
17.1
(62.8)
16.6
(61.9)
17.7
(63.9)
18.5
(65.3)
20.0
(68.0)
21.2
(70.2)
22.1
(71.8)
20.1
(68.2)
Average low °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
19.5
(67.1)
18.8
(65.8)
17.4
(63.3)
14.5
(58.1)
13.0
(55.4)
12.3
(54.1)
13.1
(55.6)
14.4
(57.9)
16.0
(60.8)
17.3
(63.1)
18.3
(64.9)
16.2
(61.2)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 16.3
(61.3)
16.7
(62.1)
15.7
(60.3)
13.4
(56.1)
10.2
(50.4)
8.3
(46.9)
7.8
(46.0)
8.1
(46.6)
10.1
(50.2)
11.5
(52.7)
13.2
(55.8)
14.8
(58.6)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
12.4
(54.3)
12.0
(53.6)
8.3
(46.9)
5.4
(41.7)
1.2
(34.2)
0.8
(33.4)
3.4
(38.1)
5.7
(42.3)
8.0
(46.4)
9.2
(48.6)
10.3
(50.5)
0.8
(33.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 288.2
(11.35)
246.2
(9.69)
214.5
(8.44)
82.1
(3.23)
78.1
(3.07)
50.3
(1.98)
47.8
(1.88)
36.0
(1.42)
84.8
(3.34)
126.6
(4.98)
136.6
(5.38)
224.4
(8.83)
1,618.7
(63.73)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 15 14 11 7 6 4 4 4 7 10 11 14 107
Average relative humidity (%) 80 79 80 80 79 78 77 74 77 79 78 80 78.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.6 162.2 167.1 165.8 182.3 172.6 187.1 175.3 152.6 153.9 163.0 150.8 2,003.3
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]

São Paulo Geography articles: 65