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Nemegt Formation

Geological formation in Mongolia

Top 3 Nemegt Formation related articles

Nemegt Formation
Stratigraphic range: Maastrichtian
~70 Ma
Nemegt, the type locality of the Nemegt Formation
TypeGeological formation
Sub-unitsLower, Middle and Upper units
UnderliesAlluvium
OverliesBarun Goyot Formation
ThicknessOver 235 m (771 ft)
Lithology
PrimaryShale, sandstone
OtherMudstone, conglomerate
Location
Coordinates43°30′N 101°00′E / 43.5°N 101.0°E / 43.5; 101.0Coordinates: 43°30′N 101°00′E / 43.5°N 101.0°E / 43.5; 101.0
Approximate paleocoordinates40°48′N 90°12′E / 40.8°N 90.2°E / 40.8; 90.2
RegionBayankhongor Aimag, Omnogov, Ovorhangai
Country  Mongolia
ExtentGobi Desert

Cretaceous-aged dinosaur fossil localities of Mongolia. Nemegt localities at area A.

The Nemegt Formation (also known as Nemegtskaya Svita) is a geological formation in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia, dating to the Late Cretaceous. The formation consists of river channel sediments and contains fossils of fish, turtles, crocodilians, and a diverse fauna of dinosaurs, including birds.

Nemegt Formation Intro articles: 7

Description

The Nemegt Formation is composed of mudstones and sandstones that were deposited by ancient lakes, streams, and flood plains. The Altan Uul locality was described by Michael Novacek as "a canyon carved out of a very rich series of sedimentary rocks" with "steep cliffs and narrow washes". The climate associated with it was wetter than when preceding formations were deposited; there seems to have existed at least some degree of forest cover. Fossilized trunks have been also found. These petrified wood, and the remains of Araucariaceae conifers indicate that the forests of the Nemegt were thickly wooded, with a high canopy formed by tall conifer trees. When examined, the rock facies of this formation suggest the presence of stream and river channels, mudflats, and shallow lakes. Sediments also indicate that there existed a rich habitat, offering diverse food in abundant amounts that could sustain massive Cretaceous dinosaurs.[1][2]

Nemegt Formation Description articles: 4

Stratigraphy

Nemegt and Barun Goyot formations intersection

The most recent stratigraphy divides the Nemegt Formation into three informal members. The lower member is dominated by fluvial deposits, while middle and upper members consist of alluvial plain, paludal, lacustrine, and fluvial deposits. The colour of the sediments is usually light grey to tan in colour in comparison to the typically red colour of the underlying Barun Goyot Formation.[3] It overlies and sometimes interfingers with the Barun Goyot Formation. Interfingering has been noted at the stratotype (Red Walls) and Hermiin Tsav.[3] There has been no absolute dating of the Nemegt Formation. Historically the Nemegt has been considered late Campanian to Maastrichtian, based on comparisons of fossils present, but no exact dating has been performed. The age for the underlying Baruungoyot Formation (= Svita) has been suggested as Santonian to Campanian, and Shuvalov (2000) found K-Ar dating of basalts that they referred to the mid and upper Baruungoyot to be 75 to 80 million years old.[4]

Nemegt Formation Stratigraphy articles: 8

Paleobiota of the Nemegt Formation

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.

Amphibians

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Altanulia A. alifanovi Altan Uul II "Partial maxilla."[5] A discoglossid. Its classification has been criticized.[6]

Fish

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Hiodontidae indet. Indeterminate Ulan Khushu "Partial vertebrae and premaxilla."[7] A mooneye.
Teleostei indet. Indeterminate "Vertebral centra found within a specimen of Raptorex."[7] A teleost.
Osteichthyes indet. Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav "Vertebrae and scales found within a specimen of Deinocheirus''."[8] A bony fish.

Flora

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Araucariaceae indet. Indeterminate Altan Uul II, Nemegt "Petrified wood and trunks."[9][2] An araucarian.
Monilitheca M. minuta Ulaan Bulag "Two isolated megasporophylls and megaspore casts."[10] A sporophyll related to quillworts.
Lemnaceae indet. Indeterminate Tsagan Khushu, Ulaan Bulag "Fruits."[11] Duckweed.
Potamogeton-like indet. Indeterminate Ulaan Bulag "Shoots and leaves."[11] Pondweed.

Invertebrates

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Altanicypris A. bispinifera Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Complete carapace and left valve."[12] An ostracod.
A. multispina Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Nine carapaces and some detached valves."[12] An ostracod.
A. szczechurae Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Multiple carapaces and detached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Candona C. altanulaensis Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Multiple specimens with carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
cf. C. fabaeformis Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Several carapaces and deatached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Candoniella C. altanica Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Multiple specimens with carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
C. mordvilkoi Altan Uul IV "Three adult carapaces."[13] An ostracod.
Cyclocypris C. transitoria Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Seven adult carapaces."[12] An ostracod.
Cypria C. elata Bügiin Tsav, Hermiin Tsav "Several carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
Cypridopsis? C. bugintsavicus Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt, Tsagan Khushu "Ten adult carapaces."[12] An ostracod.
Indeterminate Nemegt "Several complete carapaces."[12] An ostracod.
Cypris? C. ectypa Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt, Ulan Bulag "Complete carapaces and some deatached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Cypridea cf. C. punctilataeformis Nemegt "One adult carapace."[13] An ostracod.
C. barsboldi Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Multiple specimens with carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
C. cavernosa Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt, Nogon Tsav "Multiple specimens with carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
C. rostrata Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt, Nogon Tsav "Caparaces."[13] An ostracod.
Indeterminate Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Five juvenile carapaces."[12] An ostracod.
Gobiella G. prima Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Several carapaces and detached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Khandia K. stankevitchae Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Multiple carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
Leiria Indeterminate Nemegt "Several deatached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Indeterminate Nemegt "Complete carapace."[12] An ostracod.
Limnocythere sp. Indeterminate Nemegt "Juvenile carapace."[12] An ostracod.
Lycopterocypris? cf. L. profunda Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Multiple complete carapaces and left valve."[12] An ostracod.
Mongolianella M. palmosa? Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Several adult carapaces."[12] An ostracod.
Mongolocypris M. distributa Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt, Tsagan Khushu "Multiple specimens with complete carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
Nemegtia N. biformata Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt, Tsagan Khushu "Multiple complete carapaces and several detached valves."[12] An ostracod.
N. obliquecostae Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Multiple carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
N. reticulata Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt, Nogon Tsav, Tsagan Khushu "Several carapaces and detached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Paracypridea? P. mongolica Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Multiple carapaces and detached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Rhinocypris sp. Indeterminate Nemegt "Several carapaces."[12] An ostracod.
Scabriculocypris S. ingenicus? Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Naran Bulag, Nemegt, Tsagan Khushu "Multiple carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
S. rasilis? Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Several carapaces and detached valves."[12] An ostracod.
Timiriasevia cf. T. miaogouensis Altan Uul IV, Nemegt "Seven valves."[12] An ostracod.
cf. T. opinabilis Altan Uul IV "Adult carapace."[13] An ostracod.
T. minuscula Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Multiple specimens with carapaces and valves."[12] An ostracod.
T. naranbulakensis Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Four carapaces and one right valve."[12] An ostracod.
Ziziphocypris Z. costata Altan Uul IV, Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Fourteen carapaces."[12] An ostracod.

Mammals

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Buginbaatar[14] B. transaltaiensis[14] Bügiin Tsav "Fragmentary skull."[14] A multituberculate.
"Gurlin Tsav skull" Indeterminate A mysterious metatherian, possibly a sparassodont.

Turtles

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Gobiapalone G. breviplastra Alak Shand Khuduk, Altan Uul I, Bügiin Tsav, Bügiin Tsav II, Nemegt, Ulan Khushu "Shell and body elements from multiple specimens."[15] A trionychid.
Gravemys G. barsboldi Bamba Khuduk, Hermiin Tsav, Ingeni Khobur, Tsagan Khushu "Partial to complete shells."[16][17] A lindholmemydid.

Nanhsiungchelyidae indet.

Indeterminate Hermiin Tsav II "Shell fragment."[18] A nanhsiungchelyid.
Indeterminate Khuren Tsav "Damaged shell."[18] A nanhsiungchelyid.
Indeterminate Nemegt "Partial plastron."[18] A nanhsiungchelyid.
Mongolemys M. elegans Bügiin Tsav, Hermiin Tsav, Tsagan Khushu "Skull, shell and body elements from multiple specimens."[19][20] A lindholmemydid.
Mongolochelys M. efremovi Altan Uul II, Altan Uul III, Bügiin Tsav, Guriliin Tsav, Hermiin Tsav, Nemegt, Tsagan Khushu "Skull, shell and body elements from multiple specimens."[21][22] A sichuanchelyid.
Nemegtemys N. conflata Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Partial plastron elements."[15] A trionychid.

"Trionyx"

"T". gilbentuensis Gilbentu "Fragmentary shell."[15] A trionychid.
"T". gobiensis Altan Uul III, Bamba Khuduk, Nemegt, Tsagan Khushu "Fragmentary shell and carapace fragments."[15] A trionychid.
Trionychidae indet. Indeterminate Bamba Khuduk, Bügiin Tsav, Guriliin Tsav, Ingeni Khobur "Shell and body remains."[15] A trionychid. Originally identified as Amyda menneri.[15]

Dinosaurs

Alvarezsaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Mononykus[23] M. olecranus[23] Bügiin Tsav "Fragmentary skull, vertebrae, limbs and fragmented pelvis."[24] An alvarezsaurid.
Mononykus cf. Indeterminate Altan Uul III "Caudal vertebrae and left hindlimb."[25] An alvarezsaurid.
Nemegtonykus[25] N. citus[25] Altan Uul III "Partially complete skeleton from two specimens lacking the skull."[25] An alvarezsaurid.

Birds

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Brodavis[26] B. mongoliensis[26] Bügiin Tsav "Nearly complete left tarsometatarsus."[26] A hesperornithine.
Gurilynia[27] G. nessovi[27] Guriliin Tsav "Left coracoid and partial humerii."[27] An enantiornithine.
Judinornis[28] J. nogontsavensis[28] Nogon Tsav "Dorsal vertebra."[28] A hesperornithine.
Laevisoolithus[29] L. sochavai "Whole egg with partly broken pole"[29] Laid by a bird or small theropod.[29]
Subtiliolithus[29] S. microtuberculatus[29] "Eggshell fragments"[29]
Teviornis[30] T. gobiensis[30] Guriliin Tsav "Partial forelimbs."[30] An anseriform.
Unnamed ornithurans Indeterminate Tsagan Khushu "A humerus and two tibiotarsi."[31] Ornithuran remains.

Dromaeosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Adasaurus[32] A. mongoliensis[32] Bügiin Tsav "Partial skull and fragmentary postcrania from two specimens."[33] A dromaeosaurid.

Dromaeosauridae indet.

Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav "Cervical vertebra."[34] A dromaeosaurid.
Indeterminate Hermiin Tsav White Beds of Hermiin Tsav "Dorsal vertebra."[35] A dromaeosaurid.
Indeterminate Khaichin I "Three teeth."[36] A dromaeosaurid.
Indeterminate Nemegt "Dorsal vertebra and other elements."[35][37] A dromaeosaurid.
Indeterminate Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav "Footprints with poor claw marks."[38] Two-toed theropod tracks. Attributed to either Adasaurus or Zanabazar.

Ornithomimosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Anserimimus[39] A. planinychus[39] Bügiin Tsav "Partial skeleton lacking the skull."[39][40] An ornithomimid.
Deinocheirus[41] D. mirificus[41] Altan Uul III-IV, Bügiin Tsav Upper Nemegt Beds "Complete skull with virtually complete postcranial remains from three specimens."[8] A giant deinocheirid.
Gallimimus[42] G. bullatus[42] Presence in most localities[43] "Multiple specimens with nearly complete skull and postcranial elements."[43][44] An ornithomimid.
Indeterminate Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav "Nine trackways including an articulated Gallimimus foot."[38] Three-toed theropod tracks. Attributed to ornithomimids.
Unnamed ornithomimid[45] Indeterminate Tsagan Khushu "Partial vertebral column with fore and hindlimbs."[45][43] An ornithomimid.

Oviraptorosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Avimimus[46] A. portentosus[46] Shar Tsav, Udyn Sayr "Skull roof with fragmentary body elements."[47] An avimimid.
A. nemegtensis[47] Nemegt "Fragmented skull with partial skeleton."[47] An avimimid.
Conchoraptor C. gracilis Guriliin Tsav "Skull and a flock of articulated individuals."[48] An oviraptorid. Also present in the Barun Goyot Formation.
Elmisaurus[49] E. rarus[49] Altan Uul II, Hermiin Tsav, Nemegt "Fragmentary skull and partially complete skeletons from several specimens."[47] A caenagnathid.
Elongatoolithidae indet. Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav "Three eggs containing embryonic remains."[50] Oviraptorid eggs.
Gobiraptor[51] G. minutus[51] Altan Uul III "Partial crania with complete lower jaws and fragmented postcrania."[51] An oviraptorid.
Indeterminate Indeterminate Hermiin Tsav, Shar Tsav, Yagaan Khovil "Footprint casts."[52] Three-toed theropod tracks. Attributed to Avimimus.
Nemegtomaia[53] N. barsboldi[53] Nemegt "Multiple specimens including a nesting specimen and eggs."[54] An oviraptorid also present in the Barun Goyot Formation.
Nomingia[55] N. gobiensis[55] Bügiin Tsav, Nemegt "Vertebral series with partial hindlimbs and a referred pygostyle."[47] An oviraptorid.
Oksoko[56] O. avarsan Bügiin Tsav, Guriliin Tsav "Multiple associated skeletons."[56] An oviraptorid.
Rinchenia[57] R. mongoliensis[57] Altan Uul II "Skull with nearly complete skeleton."[47] An oviraptorid.

Therizinosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Therizinosaurus[58] T. cheloniformis[58] Altan Uul, Hermiin Tsav, Nemegt Upper White Beds of Hermiin Tsav "Fore and hindlimb elements from multiple specimens."[59][60] A giant therizinosaurid.
Undescribed therizinosaurids Indeterminate Altan Uul, Bügiin Tsav, Guriliin Tsav, Ulan Khushu "Partial remains."[61] Therizinosaurid remains.

Troodontids

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Borogovia[62] B. gracilicrus[62] Altan Uul IV "Partial hindlimbs."[62] A troodontid.
Indeterminate Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav "Footprints with poor claw marks."[38] Two-toed theropod tracks. Attributed to either Adasaurus or Zanabazar.
Tochisaurus[63] T. nemegtensis[63] Nemegt "Left metatarsus."[63] A troodontid.
Zanabazar[64] Z. junior[65] Bügiin Tsav "Skull with fragmentary postcranial skeleton."[64] A troodontid originally identified as "Saurornithoides junior".

Tyrannosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Alioramus[66] A. remotus[66] Nogon Tsav "Partially preserved skull with very sparse postcranial remains."[66] An alioramin.
A. altai[67] Tsagan Khushu "Nearly complete skull with partial postcrania."[67] An alioramin.
Bagaraatan[68] B. ostromi[68] Nemegt "Fragmentary lower jaw, hindlimb and caudal vertebrae."[68] A tyrannosauroid.
Indeterminate Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav, Bügiin Tsav II "Footprint casts."[52] Three-toed theropod tracks. Attributed to Tarbosaurus.

Raptorex[69]

R. kreigsteni[69]

"Nearly complete skeleton including the skull."[69] A controversial genus of tyrannosaurid that could be a juvenile Tarbosaurus.[70]
Tarbosaurus[71] T. bataar[72] Presence in most localities[2] "Nearly complete skeletons from multiple specimens."[71][72][2] A large tyrannosaurid which was the most common large carnivore in the area.[73]
Unnamed ichnotaxon Indeterminate Nemegt "Footprint casts with skin impressions."[74] Three-toed theropod tracks. Attributed to Tarbosaurus.
Tyrannosauripodidae indet. Indeterminate Nemegt "Five tracks."[75] Three-toed tyrannosaurid tracks. Attributed to either Alioramus or Tarbosaurus.

Ankylosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
"Dyoplosaurus"[76] "D". giganteus[76] Nemegt "Caudal vertebrae, partial feet, osteoderms and a partial tail club."[77] An ankylosaurid now regarded as nomen dubium.
Saichania[78] S. chulsanensis[78] Altan Uul IV "Partial vertebrae, tail club, and osteoderms."[79] An ankylosaurid also present in the Barun Goyot Formation.
Tarchia[78] T. teresae[79] Altan Uul IV, Hermiin Tsav I "Skull, partial body elements vertebrae, partial limbs and tail club"[79] An ankylosaurid.
Tetrapodosaurus-like indet. Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav, Shar Tsav "Footprint casts."[52] Ankylosaurid tracks.
Undescribed ankylosaurids Indeterminate Altan Uul II-III-IV, Bügiin Tsav, Hermiin Tsav I, Khuree Tsav, Nemegt "Several body elements including vertebrae and osteoderms."[77] Ankylosaurid remains.
Unnamed ankylosaurid Indeterminate Altan Uul III "Partial pelvis, caudal vertebrae, tail, osteoderms and skin impressions."[77] An ankylosaurid.

Hadrosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Amblydactylus-like indet. Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav, Bügiin Tsav II, Guriliin Tsav, Yagaan Khovil "Footprint casts."[52] Three-toed hadrosaurs tracks. Attributed to Saurolophus.
Barsboldia[80] B. sicinskii[80] Nemegt "Partial vertebrae, pelvis, and ribs."[80][81] A hadrosaurid.
Hadropodus Indeterminate Nemegt "Numerous footprints."[75] Hadrosaurid tracks. Attributed to Saurolophus.
Saurolophus[82] S. angustirostris[83] Presence in most localities[84] "Multiple specimens, including articulated skulls, postcranial skeletons and mass death assemblage."[85][86][87][88] A saurolophine hadrosaurid which was the most common hadrosaur in the area.[89]
Unnamed ichnotaxon Indeterminate Nemegt "Numerous footprint casts with trackways."[74] Hand and feet hadrosaur tracks. Attributed to Saurolophus.

Pachycephalosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Homalocephale[90] H. calathocercos[90] Nemegt "Partial skull and skeleton including hindlimbs."[90] A pachycephalosaurid.
Prenocephale[90] P. prenes[90] Bügiin Tsav, Guriliin Tsav, Nemegt, Tsagan Khushu "Complete skull and partial postcranium of several specimens."[90][91] A pachycephalosaurid.

Sauropods

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Brontopodus Indeterminate Nemegt "Large footprint and several four-toed tracks."[92][75] Sauropod tracks. Attributed to Opisthocoelicaudia,
Brontopodus-like indet. Indeterminate Bügiin Tsav, Yagaan Khovil "Footprint casts."[52] Sauropod tracks.
Nemegtosaurus[93] N. mongoliensis[93] Nemegt "Skulls and body remains from several specimens."[94][95][96] A titanosaur.
Opisthocoelicaudia[97] O. skarzynskii[97] Altan Uul IV "Nearly complete skeleton without the skull and cervical series."[95] A titanosaur.
Undescribed sauropods Indeterminate Altan Uul I-II-II-IV, Bügiin Tsav, Guriliin Tsav, Hermiin Tsav, Khamaryn Khural, Khuree Tsav, Nemegt, Nogon Tsav, Tsagan Khushu, Ulan Khushu "Several fragmentary remains."[95] Sauropod remains that may represent already named taxa.
Unnamed ichnotaxon Indeterminate Nemegt "Footprint casts with skin impressions."[74] Four-toed sauropod tracks. Attributed to Opisthocoelicaudia.

Other reptiles

Crocodylomorphs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Paralligator[98] P. gradilifrons[98] Nemegt, Nogon Tsav, Ulaan Bulag "Partially complete skulls with sparse body elements."[98] A paralligatorid.

Pterosaurs

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Image
Unnamed azhdarchid Indeterminate Guriliin Tsav "Fragmentary cervical vertebrae."[99] A giant azhdarchid.

Nemegt Formation Paleobiota of the Nemegt Formation articles: 81

See also

References

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  3. ^ a b Eberth, David A. (1 April 2018). "Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental evolution of the dinosaur-rich Baruungoyot-Nemegt succession (Upper Cretaceous), Nemegt Basin, southern Mongolia". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 494: 29–50. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.11.018.
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