🤩 Discover new information from across the web

Mars Helicopter Ingenuity

Drone helicopter being tested on the Mars 2020 spaceflight

Top 10 Mars Helicopter Ingenuity related articles

Ingenuity
Part of Mars 2020
TypeUAV helicopter
ManufacturerJet Propulsion Laboratory
Technical details
Dimensions
  • Fuselage (body): 13.6 cm × 19.5 cm × 16.3 cm (5.4 in × 7.7 in × 6.4 in)[1]
  • Landing legs: 0.384 m (1 ft 3.1 in)[1]
DiameterRotors: 1.2 m (4 ft)[1][2][3]
Height0.49 m (1 ft 7 in)[1]
Landing mass
  • Total: 1.8 kg (4.0 lb)[1][3]
  • Batteries: 273 g (9.6 oz)
Power350 watts[1][4]
Flight history
Launch date30 July 2020, 11:50 UTC
Launch siteCape Canaveral SLC-41
Landing date18 February 2021, 20:55 UTC
Landing siteJezero crater
Instruments

JPL's Mars Helicopter insignia

Ingenuity is a robotic rotorcraft that is planned to be used to test the technology to scout targets of interest on Mars, and help plan the best driving route for future Mars rovers.[5][6] The small drone helicopter is planned for deployment in the first 30 sols after the landing of the Perseverance rover as part of the NASA Mars 2020 mission.[7]

It is planned to make the first powered flight on any planet beyond Earth,[8] and is expected to fly up to five times during its 30-day test campaign, early in the rover's mission, as it is primarily a technology demonstration.[1][9] Each flight is planned to be at altitudes ranging from 3–5 m (9.8–16.4 ft) above the ground.[1] In up to 90 seconds per flight, it could travel as far as 50 m (160 ft) downrange and then back to the starting area.[1] It can use autonomous control during its short flights, although flights will be telerobotically planned and scripted by controllers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It will communicate with the Perseverance rover directly after each landing. If it works as expected, NASA could build on the design for future Mars aerial missions.[10]

MiMi Aung is the project lead.[11] Other contributors include AeroVironment Inc., NASA Ames Research Center, and NASA Langley Research Center.[12]

Mars Helicopter Ingenuity Intro articles: 5

Mars Helicopter Ingenuity YouTube videos

Design

Flight characteristics of Ingenuity
Rotor speed 2400 rpm [1][3]
Blade tip speed <0.7 Mach[13]
Operational time 1 to 5 flights within 30 sols[1][4]
Flight time Up to 90 seconds per flight[1]
Maximum range, flight 50 m (160 ft)[1]
Maximum range, radio 1,000 m (3,300 ft)[10]
Maximum altitude 5 m (16 ft)[1]
Maximum speed
  • Horizontal: 10 m/s (33 ft/s)[12]
  • Vertical: 3 m/s (9.8 ft/s)[12]
Battery capacity 35–40 Wh (130–140 kJ)[8]
Diagram showing the components of Ingenuity

Ingenuity is designed to be a technology demonstrator by JPL to assess whether this technology can fly safely, and provide better mapping and guidance that would give future mission controllers more information to help with travel routes planning and hazard avoidance, as well as identifying points of interest for the rover.[14][15][16] The helicopter is designed to provide overhead images with approximately ten times the resolution of orbital images, and will provide images of features that may be occluded from the cameras of the Perseverance rover. It is expected that such scouting may enable future rovers to safely drive up to three times as far per sol.[17]

The helicopter uses counter-rotating coaxial rotors about 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) in diameter. Its payload is planned to be a high resolution downward-looking camera for navigation, landing, and science surveying of the terrain, and a communication system to relay data to the Perseverance rover.[18] Although it is an aircraft, it is being constructed to spacecraft specifications in order to endure the g-force and vibration during launch. It also includes radiation-resistant systems capable of operating in the frigid environment of Mars. The inconsistent Mars magnetic field precludes the use of a compass for navigation, so it is planned to use a solar tracker camera integrated to JPL's visual inertial navigation system. Some additional inputs include gyros, visual odometry, tilt sensors, altimeter, and hazard detectors.[19] It is designed to use solar panels to recharge its batteries, which are six Sony Li-ion cells with 35–40 Wh (130–140 kJ) of battery energy capacity[8] (nameplate capacity of 2 Ah).[10]

As of 2018, the Ingenuity team was looking to possibly use a Qualcomm Snapdragon processor and the Qualcomm flight board distributed by Lantronix, with a Linux operating system.[10] Among other functions, this controls the visual navigation algorithm via a velocity estimate derived from features tracked with a camera.[10] The Qualcomm processor is connected to two flight-control microcontroller units (MCUs) to perform the needed flight-control functions.[10] Communications with the rover are through a radio link using low-power Zigbee communication protocols, implemented via 900 MHz SiFlex 02 chipsets mounted in both the rover and helicopter.[10] The communication system is designed to relay data at 250 kbit/s over distances of up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[10]

The helicopter is attached to the underside of the Perseverance rover, which landed on 18 February 2021, and should be deployed to the surface between 60 and 90 Martian days (sols) after the landing, or between 19 April and 19 May 2021. Then, the rover is expected to drive approximately 100 m (330 ft) away for the beginning of the Ingenuity flights.[20][21]

Testing

In 2019, preliminary designs of Ingenuity were tested on Earth in simulated Mars atmospheric and gravity conditions. For flight testing, a large vacuum chamber was used to simulate the very low atmospheric pressure of Mars—filled with Carbon Dioxide to approximately 0.6% of standard atmospheric pressure at sea level on Earth—which is roughly equivalent to a helicopter flying at 34,000 m (112,000 ft) altitude in the atmosphere of Earth. In order to simulate the much reduced gravity field of Mars, 62% of Earth's gravity was offset by a line pulling upwards during flight tests.[8]

Future Mars rover design iteration

The Ingenuity technology demonstrator could form the foundation on which more capable aircraft might be developed for aerial exploration of Mars and other planetary targets with an atmosphere.[14][10][22] The next generation of rotorcraft could be in the range between 5 and 15 kg with science payloads between 0.5 and 1.5 kg. These potential aircraft could have direct communication to an orbiter and may or may not continue to work with a landed asset.[21] Future helicopters could be used to explore special regions with exposed water ice or brines where Earth microbial life could potentially survive. Mars helicopters may also be considered for fast retrieval of small sample caches back to a Mars ascent vehicle for return to Earth such as the one to be launched in 2026.[23][10]

Mars Helicopter Ingenuity Design articles: 24

Development

NASA's JPL and AeroVironment published the conceptual design in 2014 for a scout helicopter to accompany a rover.[12][24][25] By mid 2016, US$15 million was being requested to keep development of the helicopter on track.[26] By December 2017, engineering models of the vehicle had been tested in a simulated Martian atmosphere[10][2] and models were undergoing testing in the Arctic, but its inclusion in the mission had not yet been approved nor funded.[27] The United States federal budget, announced in March 2018, provided US$23 million for the helicopter for one year[28][29] and it was announced on 11 May 2018 that the helicopter could be developed and tested in time to be included in the Mars 2020 mission.[30] The helicopter underwent extensive flight-dynamics and environment testing,[10][31] and was then mounted on the underside of the Perseverance rover in August 2019.[32] Its mass is just under 1.8 kg (4.0 lb)[31] and JPL has specified that it planned to have a design life of 5 flights on Mars.[33][30] The helicopter was named by Vaneeza Ruppani, an 11th grader at Tuscaloosa County High School in Northport, Alabama, who submitted an essay into NASA's "Name the Rover" contest.[34][35] NASA has invested about US$80 million to build the Mars Helicopter Ingenuity and about US$5 million to operate the helicopter.[23]

Mars Helicopter Ingenuity Development articles: 5

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Landing Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. January 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ a b Clarke, Stephen (14 May 2018). "Helicopter to accompany NASA's next Mars rover to Red Planet". Spaceflight Now.
  3. ^ a b c "Mars Helicopter Fact Sheet" (PDF). NASA. February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ a b "Mars Helicopter". mars.nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ Chang, Kenneth (23 June 2020). "Mars Is About to Have Its "Wright Brothers Moment" – As part of its next Mars mission, NASA is sending an experimental helicopter to fly through the red planet's thin atmosphere". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  6. ^ Leone, Dan (19 November 2015). "Elachi Touts Helicopter Scout for Mars Sample-Caching Rover". SpaceNews. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  7. ^ Agle, D.C.; Hautaluoma, Gray; Johnson, Alana (23 June 2020). "How NASA's Mars Helicopter Will Reach the Red Planet's Surface". NASA. Retrieved 23 June 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ a b c d First Flight on Another Planet!. Veritasium. 10 August 2019. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020 – via YouTube.
  9. ^ Decision expected soon on adding helicopter to Mars 2020, Jeff Fout, SpaceNews, 4 May 2018
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mars Helicopter Technology Demonstrator Archived 1 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine J. (Bob) Balaram, Timothy Canham, Courtney Duncan, Matt Golombek, Håvard Fjær Grip, Wayne Johnson, Justin Maki, Amelia Quon, Ryan Stern, and David Zhu. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), SciTech Forum Conference; 8–12 January 2018, Kissimmee, Florida doi:10.2514/6.2018-0023 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. ^ MiMi Aung – Autonomous Systems Deputy Division Manager Archived 5 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine NASA/JPL This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ a b c d Generation of Mars Helicopter Rotor Model for Comprehensive Analyses Archived 1 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) Witold J. F. Koning, Wayne Johnson, Brian G. Allan, NASA Rotorcraft, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ Mars Helicopter Scout. video presentation at Caltech This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ a b Brown, Dwayne; Wendel, JoAnna; Agle, D.C.; Northon, Karen (11 May 2018). "Mars Helicopter to Fly on NASA's Next Red Planet Rover Mission". NASA. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  15. ^ Chang, Kenneth. "A Helicopter on Mars? NASA Wants to Try". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  16. ^ Gush, Loren (11 May 2018). "NASA is sending a helicopter to Mars to get a bird's-eye view of the planet – The Mars Helicopter is happening". The Verge. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  17. ^ Review on space robotics: Toward top-level science through space exploration Y. Gao, S. Chien – Science Robotics, 2017
  18. ^ Volpe, Richard. "2014 Robotics Activities at JPL" (PDF). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. Retrieved 1 September 2015. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  19. ^ Heading Estimation via Sun Sensing for Autonomous Navigation, Parth Shah, 2017
  20. ^ "NASA's Mars Helicopter: Small, Autonomous Rotorcraft To Fly On Red Planet" Archived 10 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Shubham Sharma, International Business Times, 14 May 2018
  21. ^ a b "Mars Helicopter a new challenge for flight" (PDF). NASA. July 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  22. ^ "Mars Helicopter a new challenge for flight" (PDF). NASA. July 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. ^ a b "Mars 2020 Perseverance Launch Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  24. ^ J. Balaram and P. T. Tokumaru, "Rotorcrafts for Mars Exploration", in 11th International Planetary Probe Workshop, 2014. Bibcode 2014LPICo1795.8087B https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LPICo1795.8087B/abstract
  25. ^ Benjamin T. Pipenberg, Matthew Keennon, Jeremy Tyler, Bart Hibbs, Sara Langberg, J. (Bob) Balaram, Håvard F. Grip and Jack Pempejian, "Design and Fabrication of the Mars Helicopter Rotor, Airframe, and Landing Gear Systems", American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), SciTech Forum Conference; 7–11 January 2019, San Diego, California
  26. ^ Berger, Eric (24 May 2016). "Four wild technologies lawmakers want NASA to pursue". ARS Technica. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  27. ^ Dubois, Chantelle (29 November 2017). "Drones on Mars? NASA Projects May Soon Use Drones for Space Exploration". All About Circuits. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  28. ^ NASA Mars exploration efforts turn to operating existing missions and planning sample return, Jeff Foust, SpaceNews 23 February 2018
  29. ^ NASA to decide soon whether flying drone will launch with Mars 2020 rover Stephen Clarke, Spaceflight Now 15 March 2018
  30. ^ a b Mars Helicopter to Fly on NASA's Next Red Planet Rover Mission Archived 11 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine Karen Northon, NASA, 11 May 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  31. ^ a b Agle, AG; Johnson, Alana (28 March 2019). "NASA's Mars Helicopter Completes Flight Tests". NASA. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  32. ^ NASA's Mars Helicopter Attached to Mars 2020 Rover Archived 4 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine NASA–JPL 28 August 2019 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  33. ^ Yes, NASA Is Actually Sending a Helicopter to Mars: Here's What It Will Do. Archived 15 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine Sarah Lewin, Space.com, 12 May 2018
  34. ^ Hautaluoma, Grey; Johnson, Alana; Agle, D.C. (29 April 2020). "Alabama High School Student Names NASA's Mars Helicopter". NASA. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  35. ^ Agle, D.C.; Cook, Jia-Rui; Johnson, Alana (29 April 2020). "Q&A with the Student Who Named Ingenuity, NASA's Mars Helicopter". NASA. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

External links