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List of pharaohs

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Pharaoh of Egypt
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
Details
StyleFive-name titulary
First monarchNarmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch
[2]
Formationc. 3100 BC
Abolition
  • 343 BC
    (last native pharaoh)[1]
  • 30 BC
    (last Greek pharaohs)
  • 313 AD
    (last Roman Emperor to be called Pharaoh)[2]
ResidenceVaries by era
AppointerDivine right

The title "Pharaoh" is used for those rulers of Ancient Egypt who ruled after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer during the Early Dynastic Period, approximately 3100 BC. However, the specific title "Pharaoh" was not used to address the kings of Egypt by their contemporaries until the rule of Merneptah in the 19th Dynasty, c. 1200 BC. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties.

Egypt was continually governed, at least in part, by native pharaohs for approximately 2500 years, until it was conquered by the Kingdom of Kush in the late 8th century BC, whose rulers adopted the traditional pharaonic titulature for themselves. Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered Egypt for a second time.

Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Their rule, and the independence of Egypt, came to an end when Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Augustus and subsequent Roman emperors were styled as Pharaoh when in Egypt until the reign of Maximinus Daia in 314 AD.

The dates given in this list of pharaohs are approximate. They are based primarily on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities[3] database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

List of pharaohs Intro articles: 15

Ancient Egyptian king lists

Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records and , including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and historians alike call for caution in regard to the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.[4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]

  • Den seal impressions (1st Dynasty); found on a cylinder seal in Den's tomb. It lists all 1st Dynasty kings from Narmer to Den by their Horus names.[6]
  • Palermo stone (5th Dynasty); carved on an olivine-basalt slab. Broken into pieces and thus today incomplete.
  • Giza writing board (6th Dynasty); painted with red, green and black ink on gypsum and cedar wood. Very selective.
  • South Saqqara Stone (6th Dynasty); carved on a black basalt slab. Very selective.
  • Karnak King List (18th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Abydos King List of Seti I (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting the First Intermediate Period.
  • Abydos King List of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Ramesseum king list (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Contains most of the New Kingdom pharaohs up to Ramesses II.
  • Saqqara Tablet (19th Dynasty), carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting most kings of the 1st Dynasty for unknown reasons.
  • Turin King List (19th Dynasty); written with red and black ink on papyrus. Likely the most complete king-list in history, today damaged.
  • Medinet Habu king list (20th Dynasty); carved on limestone and very similar to the Ramesseum king list.
  • Manetho's Aegyptiaca (Greek Period); possibly written on papyrus. The original writings are lost today and many anecdotes assigned to certain kings seem fictitious.

List of pharaohs Ancient Egyptian king lists articles: 19

Predynastic period

Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. The following list may be incomplete:

Name Image Comments Reign
King 01 (missing)
Only known from the Palermo stone[7]
Unknown
Hsekiu / Seka
Only known from the Palermo stone[8]
Unknown
Khayu
Only known from the Palermo stone[9]
Unknown
Tiu / Teyew
Only known from the Palermo stone[10]
Unknown
Thesh / Tjesh
Only known from the Palermo stone[11]
Unknown
Neheb
Only known from the Palermo stone[12]
Unknown
Wazner
Only known from the Palermo stone[13]
Ruled around or earlier than 3180 BC
Mekh
Only known from the Palermo stone[14]
Unknown
King 09 (destroyed)
Only known from the Palermo stone[14]
Unknown
Hedju Hor
Only known from two clay jugs from Tura
Naqada II??
Ny-Hor
Only known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada
Naqada II??
Hat-Hor
Around 3180 BC
Double Falcon
May also have ruled in Upper Egypt
Naqada III
(32nd century BC)
Wash
Only known from the Narmer Palette[15] Around 3150 BC
Naqada III

Upper Egypt

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00.

Name Image Comments Reign
Finger Snail
The existence of this king is very doubtful.[16]
Naqada III
Fish[17]
Only known from artifacts that bear his mark, around 3250–3220 BC. He most likely never existed.[16]
Naqada III
Elephant[18]
Around 3240–3220 BC; more than likely never existed
Naqada III
Stork[19][20]
most likely never existed.[16]
Naqada III
Bull
most likely never existed.[16]
Naqada III
Scorpion I
First ruler of Upper Egypt, Around 3250–3200 BC.
Naqada III

Predynastic rulers: Dynasty 0

The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

Name Image Comments Dates
Iry-Hor
Correct chronological position unclear.[21]
Around 3170 BC
Crocodile
Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[22]
Around 3170 BC
Ka
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[23]
Around 3170 BC
Scorpion II
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[24]
Around 3170 BC

List of pharaohs Predynastic period articles: 30

Early Dynastic Period

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3100 to 2686 BC.[25]

First Dynasty

The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC.[25]

Name Image Comments Dates
Narmer
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
Around 3100 BC[25]
Hor-Aha
Greek form: Athotís.
Around 3050 BC
Djer
Greek form: Uenéphes (after his Gold name In-nebw); His name and titulary appear on the Palermo Stone. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris.
54 years[26]
Djet
Greek form: Usapháis.
10 years[27]
Den
Greek form: Kénkenes (after the ramesside diction of his birthname: Qenqen[28]). First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name.
42 years[27]
Anedjib
Greek form: Miebidós. Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[29]
10 years
Semerkhet
Greek form: Semempsés. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo Stone.
8½ years[27]
Qa'a
Greek form: Bienéches. Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.
34 years
Sneferka
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 2900 BC
Horus Bird
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 2900 BC

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.[25]

Name Image Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy[30]
Manetho names him Boëthos and claims that under this ruler an earthquake killed many people.
15 years
Nebra[31]
Greek form: Kaíechós (after the Ramesside cartouche name Kakaw). First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.
14 years
Nynetjer[32]
Greek form: Binóthris. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.
43–45 years
Weneg-Nebty[33]
Greek form: Ougotlas/Tlás. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.
Around 2740 BC
Senedj[34]
Greek form: Sethenes. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[35]
47 years (Supposedly)
Seth-Peribsen
Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt.[36]
Unknown
Sekhemib-Perenmaat
Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[37]
Around 2720 BC
Neferkara I
Greek form: Néphercherés. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.
25 years(according to Manetho)
Neferkasokar
Greek form: Sesóchris. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting drought.[38]
8 years
Hudjefa I
Known only from Ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in Ramesside times.
11 years(According to the Turin Canon)
Khasekhem(wy)[39][40]
Greek form: Chenerés. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.
18 years

List of pharaohs Early Dynastic Period articles: 33

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period. The kingdom ruled from 2686 to 2181 BC.[41]

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Djoser[42][43]
Hellenized names Sesorthos and Tosórthros. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.
19 or 28 years, possibly around 2650 BC[44]
Sekhemkhet[45]
Greek form: Tyréis (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti). In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.[46]
2649–2643 BC
Sanakht
Likely to be identified with the throne name Nebka; Hellenized names Necherôchis and Necherôphes. May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon.
Around 2650 BC
Khaba
Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni.
2643–2637 BC
Huni[47]
Greek form: Áches. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni.
2637–2613 BC

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2496 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Sneferu
Greek form: Sóris. Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[48]
2613–2589 BC[41]
Khufu
Greek form: Cheops and Suphis. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.
2589–2566 BC
Djedefre
Greek form: Rátoises. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.
2566–2558 BC
Khafre
Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II. His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
2558–2532 BC
Baka/Bauefrê
Greek form: Bikheris. Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan.
Around 2570 BC
Menkaure
Greek form: Menchéres. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.
2532–2503 BC
Shepseskaf
Greek form: Seberchéres. Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.
2503–2498 BC
Thamphthis
According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.
Around 2500 BC

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkaf
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
2496–2491 BC
Sahure
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer
2477–2467 BC
Neferefre
Son of Neferirkare
2460–2458 BC
Shepseskare
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[49]
A few months
Nyuserre Ini
Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis.
2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu
Last pharaoh to build a sun temple
2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.
2414–2375 BC
Unas
The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
2375–2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.[41]

Name Image Comments Dates
Teti
According to Manetho, he was murdered.
2345–2333 BC
Userkare
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I
Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty
2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years.
2278–2184 BC
Neferka
Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[50]
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 2184 BC
Neitiqerty Siptah
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[51] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2184–2181 BC

List of pharaohs Old Kingdom articles: 67

First Intermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years (possibly 2181 to 2160 BC[52]). They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[53] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[54]

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkare
Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[55][56][57]
Probably short, Around 2181 BC
Neferkare II
Unknown
Neferkare (III) Neby
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Unknown
Djedkare Shemai
Unknown
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Unknown
Merenhor
Unknown
Neferkamin
Unknown
Nikare
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Unknown
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Unknown
Neferkahor
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Unknown
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Unknown to 2171 BC
Neferkamin Anu
Around 2170 BC
Qakare Ibi
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts
2169–2167 BC
Neferkaure
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos.
2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay.
2163–2161 BC
Neferirkare
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.
2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty[58] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.[59] The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[58]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty.
2160 BC–unknown
Unknown
Neferkare VII
Unknown
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
Unknown
Senenh— or Setut
Unknown
Unknown
Mery—
Unknown
Shed—
Unknown
H—
Unknown

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.[59]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryhathor
2130 BC–unknown
Neferkare VIII
Between 2130 and 2040 BCE
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)
Unknown
Merykare
Unknown–2040 BC

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.
Unknown

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
Unknown–2133 BC[59]
Sehertawy Intef I
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
2133–2117 BC[59]
Wahankh Intef II
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
2117–2068 BC[59]
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[60]
2068–2060 BC[59]

List of pharaohs First Intermediate Period articles: 55