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Karnataka

Indian state

Top 10 Karnataka related articles

Karnataka
Nickname(s): 
Karunadu
Anthem: "Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate"[1]
"(Victory To You Mother Karnataka, Daughter of Mother India)
Map of Karnataka
Coordinates (Bangalore): 12°58′N 77°30′E / 12.97°N 77.50°E / 12.97; 77.50Coordinates: 12°58′N 77°30′E / 12.97°N 77.50°E / 12.97; 77.50
CountryIndia
Formation1 November 1956
(as Mysore State)
CapitalBangalore
Largest CityBangalore
Districts31
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Karnataka
 • GovernorVajubhai Vala
 • Chief MinisterB. S. Yediyurappa (BJP)
 • Deputy Chief Ministers
 • LegislatureBicameral
 • Parliamentary constituency
Area
 • Total191,791 km2 (74,051 sq mi)
Area rank6th
Highest elevation
1,925 m (6,316 ft)
Lowest elevation
(MSL)
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total61,130,704
 • Rank8th
 • Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Kannadiga (masculine)
Kannadati (feminine)
GDP (2019–20)
 • Total16.99 trillion (US$240 billion)
 • Per capita231,246 (US$3,200)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-KA
Vehicle registrationKA
Official languagesKannada[5]
HDI (2018) 0.682[6] medium · 19th
Literacy (2011)75.36%[7]
Sex ratio (2011)973 /1000 [7]
Websitewww.karnataka.gov.in
Symbols of Karnataka
FlagIndian Flag
EmblemEmblem of Karnataka
[8]
SongJaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate[9]
Mammal
Indian elephant[10]
Bird
Indian Roller[10]
Flower
Lotus[10]
Tree
Sandalwood[10]

Karnataka (ISO: Karnāṭaka, Kannada pronunciation: [kəɾˈnɑːʈəkɑ]) is a state in the south western region of India. It is the largest state in South India and sixth largest in India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. Its capital and largest city is Bangalore.

Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. It is the only southern state to have land borders with all of the other 4 southern Indian sister states. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 31 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. Other minority languages spoken include Urdu, Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is primarily spoken.[11][12][13]

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu Nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.[14]

With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

The economy of Karnataka is the fourth-largest of any Indian state with 16.99 trillion (US$240 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 231,000 (US$3,200).[3][4] Karnataka has the nineteenth highest ranking among Indian states in Human Development Index.[6]

Karnataka Intro articles: 33

History

Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal, built successively by the kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region.[15] Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.[16][17]

Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi;[18][19] the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with Talakad as its capital.[20][21]

These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi.[22][23] These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas,[24][25] the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta[26][27] and the Western Chalukya Empire,[28][29] which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century.[30][31] Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century.[32] The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule.[32]

At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.[33][34][35][36] The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.[37][38]

In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota.[39] The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century.[40][41] The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style.[42] During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salcette, Goa,[43] while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.[44]

In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers.[45] In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent.[46] With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tipu Sultan.[47] To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan's death and the incorporation of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799.[48] The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj.

Chief Minister Dr. Devaraj Urs announcing the new name of the Mysore state as 'Karnataka'

As the "doctrine of lapse" gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848.[49] Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These rebellions—which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857—were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.[50]

After India's independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom's accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, on 1 November 1973.[51] In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, born in Muddenahalli, Chikballapur district, played an important role in the development of Karnataka's strong manufacturing and industrial base.

Karnataka History articles: 77

Geography

The state has three principal geographical zones:

  1. The coastal region of Karavali and Tulu Nadu
  2. The hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats
  3. The Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the Deccan Plateau

The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme region, the northern part of which is the second-largest arid region in India.[52] The highest point in Karnataka is the Mullayanagiri hills in Chikmagalur district which has an altitude of 1,925 metres (6,316 ft). The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka, and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in South Karnataka. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal. Other prominent rivers such as the Sharavati in Shimoga and Netravati in Dakshina Kannada flow westward, reaching the sea at the Arabian Sea. A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation and hydroelectricity power generation capacities of the state.

Jog Falls, formed by Sharavathi River, are the second-highest plunge waterfalls in India.

Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations[53] – the Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, the Proterozoic non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks. Laterite cappings that are found in many districts over the Deccan Traps were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols.[53] Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateritic, black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.

About 38,724 km2 (14,951 sq mi) of Karnataka (i.e. 20% of the state's geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all-India average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy.[54]

Karnataka Geography articles: 48

Climate

Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. Meteorologically, Karnataka is divided into three zones – coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm (143 in) per annum, far in excess of the state average of 1,139 mm (45 in). Amagaon in Khanapura taluka of Belgaum district received 10,068 mm (396 in) of rainfall in the year 2010.[55] In the year 2014, Kokalli in Sirsi taluka of Uttara Kannada district received 8,746 mm (344 in) of rainfall.[56] Agumbe in Thirthahalli taluka and Hulikal of Hosanagara taluka in Shimoga district were the rainiest cities in Karnataka, situated in one of the wettest regions in the world.[57]

The state is projected to warm about 2.0 °C (4 °F) by 2030. The monsoon is set to provide less rainfall. Agriculture in Karnataka is mostly rainfed as opposed to irrigated, making it highly vulnerable to expected changes in the monsoon.[58] The highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F) in Raichuru district. The lowest recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at Bidar district.

Karnataka Climate articles: 16

Sub-divisions

There are 31 districts in Karnataka. Each district (zila) is governed by a district commissioner (ziladar). The districts are further divided into sub-districts (talukas), which are governed by sub-commissioners (talukdars); sub-divisions comprise blocks (tehsils/hobli), which are governed by block development officers (tehsildars), which contain village councils (panchayats), town municipal councils (purasabhe), city municipal councils (nagarasabhe), and city municipal corporations (mahanagara palike).

Sl. no. Divisions Capital Sl. no. Districts Capital
1 Belgaum Belgaum 1 Bagalkot Bagalkot
2 Belgaum Belgaum
3 Dharwad Dharwad
4 Gadag Gadag
5 Haveri Haveri
6 Uttara Kannada Karwar
7 Bijapur Bijapur
2 Bangalore Bangalore 8 Bangalore Urban Bangalore
9 Bangalore Rural Bangalore
10 Chikkaballapura Chikkaballapura
11 Chitradurga Chitradurga
12 Davanagere Davanagere
13 Kolar Kolar
14 Ramanagara Ramanagara
15 Shimoga Shimoga
16 Tumkur Tumkur
3 Gulbarga Gulbarga 17 Ballari Ballari
18 Bidar Bidar
19 Gulbarga Gulbarga
20 Koppal Koppal
21 Raichur Raichur
22 Yadgir Yadgir
23 Vijayanagara Hospete
4 Mysore Mysore 24 Chamarajanagar Chamarajanagar
25 Chikmagalur Chikmagalur
26 Dakshina Kannada Mangalore
27 Hassan Hassan
28 Kodagu Madikeri
29 Mandya Mandya
30 Mysore Mysore
31 Udupi Udupi

Karnataka Sub-divisions articles: 59