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KRI Nanggala (402)

Cakra class submarine of the Indonesian Navy

Top 10 KRI Nanggala (402) related articles

KRI Nanggala in the Java Sea in 2015
History
Indonesia
Name: KRI Nanggala
Namesake: Divine spear of Prabu Baladewa
Ordered: 2 April 1977
Builder: Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft
Laid down: March 1978
Launched: 10 September 1980
Completed: 6 July 1981
Commissioned: 21 October 1981
Identification: 402
Status: Missing, as of 22 April 2021
Badge:
General characteristics
Class and type: Cakra-class attack submarine
Displacement:
  • 1,285 tons surfaced
  • 1,390 tons dived
Length: 59.5 m (195 ft 3 in)
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in)
Draft: 5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)
Propulsion:
  • 4 × MTU 12V493 AZ80 GA31L diesel engines rated at 1.8 MW (2,400 hp)[1]
  • 4 × Siemens alternators rated at 2,300 hp (1.7 MW)
  • 1 × Siemens motor rated at 3.4 MW (4,600 hp)
  • 1 × shaft
Speed:
  • 11 knots (20 km/h; 13 mph) surfaced[1]
  • 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph) submerged
Range: 8,200 nmi (15,200 km; 9,400 mi) at 8 kn (15 km/h; 9.2 mph)
Endurance: 50 days[1]
Test depth: 240 m (790 ft)[1]
Complement: 50 including special forces unit[2]
Crew: 6 officers, 28 enlisted[3]
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Signaal Sinbad weapons control system[1]
  • Thomson-CSF Calypso, I-band surface search radar
  • Atlas Elektronik CSU 3-2 active/passive search and attack sonar
  • PRS-3/4 passive ranging
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • ESM : Thomson-CSF DR2000U[1]
  • CMS : Kongsberg MSI-90U Mk 2[4]
Armament:
  • 8 × 533 mm (21 in) bow tubes[1]
  • 14 × AEG SUT torpedoes

KRI Nanggala (402) is a diesel-electric attack submarine of the Indonesian Navy, one of two Cakra-class submarines, and uses a Type 209 design. On 21 April 2021, it went missing in deep waters north of Bali during a SUT torpedo drill.

Nanggala was ordered in 1977, launched in 1980, and commissioned in 1981. The boat has conducted intelligence gathering operations in the Indian Ocean and around East Timor and Nunukan. It was a participant of the international Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training naval exercise, and has conducted a passing exercise with USS Oklahoma City. The boat underwent a major refit in 2012.

Nanggala was declared missing on 21 April 2021, hours after losing contact with surface personnel while it was underwater. It was in the middle of a torpedo drill and had fired a live torpedo before it went missing. Multiple domestic and international vessels were sent to search for the boat.

KRI Nanggala (402) Intro articles: 3

Name

The boat is named after the Nanggala, a divine and powerful short spear owned by Prabu Baladewa, a recurring character in wayang puppet theatre.[5][6] (Baladewa is the elder brother of Kresna.[6]) The weapon itself is depicted on the submarine's badge.

KRI Nanggala (402) Name articles: 4

History

KRI Nanggala at a naval exercise in East Kalimantan, 1992
Periscope (above) and control room, in 2017 after South Korean refitting

KRI Nanggala was ordered on 2 April 1977.[7] The construction of the boat was part of a 625 million dollar loan by the West German government to the Indonesian government, in which about 100 million dollars were spent on the submarine and its Cakra-class counterpart, Cakra.[8] The boat was designed by Ingenieurkontor Lübeck of Lübeck, constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft of Kiel, and sold by Ferrostaal of Essen – all acting together as a West German consortium.[1] The boat was laid down on March 1978[7] and was completed on 6 July 1981.[9] Nanggala was first shown to the public on the 36th anniversary of the Armed Forces on 5 October 1981,[10] and was commissioned sixteen days later by Minister of Defense and Security General M. Jusuf.[11] Cakra and Nanggala were the only active submarines in the Indonesian Navy between the decommissioning of KRI Pasopati in 1994[12] and the commissioning of KRI Nagapasa in 2017.[13][14]

Nanggala has participated in several naval exercises, including the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training exercises in 2002 and 2015.[15][16] In 2004, the boat participated in the Joint Marine Operations Exercise held in the Indian Ocean, during which it sank KRI Rakata, a decommissioned Indonesian ship first launched in 1942.[15][17] In 2012, the boat conducted a passing exercise with USS Oklahoma City, accompanied by KRI Diponegoro [id] and a Bölkow-Blohm helicopter.[18]

Throughout its career, the ship has conducted several intelligence gathering in the waters of Indonesia. The first operation was conducted in the Indian Ocean from April to May 1992. The second one was conducted in East Timor from August to October 1999, in which the boat tracked the movements of the International Force East Timor as it landed in the region. The last one was conducted in the waters of Nunukan, East Kalimantan, May 2005, after the Indonesian KRI Tedong Naga grazed the Malaysian KD Rencong earlier that year. Aside from intelligence gathering, the boat was tasked to infiltrate and hunt down strategic targets in Nunukan.[19][20]

Nanggala underwent a refit at Howaldtswerke that was completed in 1989.[21] Roughly two decades later, the boat underwent a full refit for two years in South Korea by Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) that was completed in January 2012.[22][2][a] The refit cost US$ 63.7 million,[24] replaced much of the submarine's upper structure, and upgraded its weaponry, sonar, radar, combat control and propulsion systems.[25][2] After the refit, Nanggala became capable of firing four torpedoes simultaneously at four different targets and launching anti-ship missiles such as the Exocet or the Harpoon. Its safe diving depth was increased to 257 metres (843 ft), and its top speed was increased from 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h) to 25 knots (46 km/h).[2]

In 2016 the submarine was equipped with the ASELSAN-produced KULAÇ echosounder system.[26]

KRI Nanggala (402) History articles: 27

2021 disappearance

On 21 April 2021, Air Chief Marshal Hadi Tjahjanto, Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, reported that Nanggala was believed to have disappeared in waters about 95 km (51 nautical miles) north of Bali.[27][b] Indonesian Navy spokesperson First Admiral Julius Widjojono [id] stated that Nanggala had been conducting a torpedo drill, but failed to report its results as expected.[28][29] The navy announced in a written statement that Nanggala had requested permission to dive to fire a SUT torpedo[17] at 03:00 WIB (20:00 UTC, 20 April).[30][31] Around an hour after being given clearance, the boat lost contact with surface personnel.[32][33] According to the navy, at around 04:00 WIB Nanggala should have been flooding its torpedo tubes in preparation for the firing of the torpedo. Indonesian military spokesperson Major General Achmad Riad [id] reported that the last communication with Nanggala was at 04:25 WIB when the commanding officer of the training task force would have authorized the firing of torpedo number 8.[34] Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy Yudo Margono reported that Nanggala had fired a live torpedo and a practice torpedo before contact was lost.[31]

The navy subsequently sent a distress call to the International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office around 09:37 WIB to report the boat as missing and presumably sunk.[35] The navy stated that it was possible that Nanggala experienced a power outage before falling to a depth of 600–700 m (2,000–2,300 ft).[32] Widjojono stated that Nanggala is able to dive down to a depth of up to 500 m (1,600 ft).[31] The deepest areas of the Bali Sea are over 1,500 m (4,900 ft) below sea level.[36]

At the time it went missing, Nanggala had 53 people on board, including 49 crew members, one commander and three weapons specialists.[37] The highest-ranking naval officer in the submarine was Colonel Harry Setyawan, the commander of the submarine unit of the 2nd Fleet Command. Subordinates with him were Lieutenant Colonel Heri Oktavian, the commander of the submarine, and Irfan Suri, an officer from the Weapons Materials and Electronics Service.[38]

At noon on 22 April, Yudo Margono stated that the oxygen reserves on Nanggala would be sufficient for the entire crew and passengers for three days after it had submerged. According to Yudo, the oxygen would run out on Saturday, 24 April, at 03:00 WIB (20:00 UTC, 23 April),[39] however, backup systems are present that supply lower but still sufficient levels of oxygen depending on the maintainance of the equipment.[40] Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated that the safety of the crew of Nanggala is of top priority; he also invited everyone to pray for the crew's safety.[41]

Search

The navy immediately deployed three warships, KRI Diponegoro, KRI Raden Eddy Martadinata, and KRI I Gusti Ngurah Rai, to search for Nanggala.[42] Widjojono stated that a team of divers was searching for the boat.[28] Janes Defence News also reported that the navy had sent a number of other warships to the area.[35] The defense ministry stated that the governments of Australia, Singapore, and India had responded to their requests for assistance.[43] The Republic of Singapore Navy and Royal Malaysian Navy have deployed their submarine rescue vessels, MV Swift Rescue and MV Mega Bakti respectively, to the scene.[44] By Thursday, 22 April, the navy had deployed six additional ships to the area: KRI Dr. Soeharso, KRI Hasan Basri [id], KRI Karel Satsuit Tubun, KRI Singa, KRI Hiu and KRI Layang.[45] Yudo Margono also noted on Thursday that three submarines, five airplanes, and 21 warships had been deployed in the search effort.[31] Submarine KRI Alugoro had also joined the search.[46] KRI Rigel, a warship with more powerful sonar equipment, was expected to arrive on 23 April.[47]

Around 07:00 WIB, an aerial search revealed traces of an oil spill on the surface of the water near the location where the submarine was believed to have dived.[43][31] Achmad Riad later reported that an oil spill had been observed at multiple locations.[44] He added that Raden Eddy Martadinata had detected movement underwater at a speed of 2.5 knots (4.6 km/h), but was unable to obtain enough information to identify the contact before it disappeared.[44] Yudo Margono also reported on Thursday that an Indonesian naval vessel had detected an object that was magnetic at a depth of 50 to 100 metres (160 to 330 feet).[31][c]

On 22 April, at approximately 14:15 WIB (07:15 UTC),[48] the Indian Navy announced their deep-submergence rescue vehicle (DSRV) had departed naval facilities at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, en route to the search area.[49] U.S. Department of Defense press secretary John Kirby stated that the department was sending airborne assets to assist in the search.[36] Achmad Riad stated that the U.S. was sending P-8 Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft.[50] On 23 April, Commander Australian Fleet Rear Admiral Mark Hammond announced that HMAS Ballarat and HMAS Sirius will join the search operation.[51] Other nations, including Germany, France, Russia, Turkey, and Thailand, have offered assistance.[52]

KRI Nanggala (402) 2021 disappearance articles: 36

Commanders

Heri Oktavian (left) and Harry Setyawan, commanders aboard Nanggala when it went missing in 2021
  • Sea Major (Lieutenant commander) Muhammad Ali [id] (2004–2006)[53]
  • Sea Major Wirawan Ady Prasetya [id] (2013 – 16 May 2014[54])
  • Sea Major Harry Setyawan (16 May 2014[54] – 8 December 2015[55])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel (Commander) Widya Poerwandanu (8 December 2015[55] – 29 September 2016[56])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Ahmad Noer Taufik (29 September 2016[56] – 2 December 2016[57])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Yulius Azz Zaenal (2 December 2016[57] – 20 February 2019[58])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Ansori (20 February 2019[58] – 3 April 2020[59])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Heri Oktavian (3 April 2020[59] – present) (missing in 2021)

Command structure

KRI Nanggala command structure[60]
Grey background indicates those who were indirectly in charge, while bold indicates those who were onboard
Admiral
Yudo Margono
Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy
Rear Admiral
I Nyoman Gede Sudihartawan
Commander of the 2nd Fleet
Sea Colonel
Harry Setyawan
Commander of the 2nd Fleet Submarine Unit
Sea Lieutenant Colonel
Heri Oktavian
Commander of KRI Nanggala
Sea Major
Eko Firmanto
Chief of Staff of KRI Nanggala
Sea Major
Wisnu Subiyantoro
Head of Machine Department
of KRI Nanggala
Sea Captain
Yohanes Heri
Head of Electronic Weaponry Department
of KRI Nanggala
Sea Captain
I Gede Kartika
Head of Operations Department
of KRI Nanggala
2nd Lt. Rhesa Tri, Head of Large Machine Division
2nd Lt. Anang Sutriasno, Head of Electricity Division
1st Lt. Ady Sonata, Head of Weapons
Control Division
2nd Lt. Adhi Laksmono, Head of Electronics Division

1st Lt. Muhadi, Head of Communications Division

1st Lt. Imam Adi, Head of Combat Control Center Division

Overview of "First Lieutenant" article

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nanggala did not return to operations until February 2012.[23]
  2. ^ The area is around 300 km (160 nautical miles) to the east of the large East Java city of Surabaya.
  3. ^ It is unclear if Achmad Riad and Yudo Margono were referring to the same object.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Saunders, Stephen, ed. (2009). Jane's Fighting Ships 2009–2010. Jane's Information Group. p. 353. ISBN 9780710628886.
  2. ^ a b c d Boediwardhana, Wahyoe (2 June 2012). "RI submarines on par with neighbors after overhaul". Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  3. ^ Ridzwan Rahmat (21 April 2021). "Indonesian Navy submarine missing in Bali Sea". Janes. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  4. ^ MSI-90U Mk 2 Combat Management System (PDF). Norway: Kongsberg. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  5. ^ Wisesa, Yosafat Diva Bayu (22 April 2021). "Ternyata KRI Nanggala-402 mengandung petir dari kekuatan ilahi Baladewa dan bisa belah gunung". Hops (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
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  7. ^ a b Gardiner, Robert; Chumbley, Stephen, eds. (1995). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland, US: Naval Institute Press. p. 179. ISBN 1-55750-132-7.
  8. ^ "Dua kapal-selam baru untuk TNI-AL". Kompas (in Indonesian). 5 February 1977. Retrieved 23 April 2021. Excerpt of the newspaper could be seen in here at 00.47. (Video archived)
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