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Jakarta

Capital and province of Indonesia, on island of Java

Top 10 Jakarta related articles

Jakarta
Jakarta
Location in Java and Indonesia
Jakarta
Jakarta (Indonesia)
Jakarta
Jakarta (Southeast Asia)
Jakarta
Jakarta (Asia)
Jakarta
Jakarta (Earth)
Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6.200°S 106.817°E / -6.200; 106.817Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6.200°S 106.817°E / -6.200; 106.817
Founded22 June 1527[1]
City status4 March 1621[1]
Province status28 August 1961[1]
Government
 • TypeSpecial administrative area
 • BodyJakarta Provincial Government
 • GovernorAnies Baswedan
 • Vice GovernorAhmad Riza Patria
 • LegislativeJakarta Regional People's Representative Council
Area
 • Special Capital Region662.33 km2 (255.73 sq mi)
 • Metro
6,392 km2 (2,468 sq mi)
Area rank34th in Indonesia
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
 (2020)[2]
 • Special Capital Region10,770,487
 • Rank6th in Indonesia
 • Density14,464/km2 (37,460/sq mi)
 • Metro
(2015 estimate)[3]
31,689,592
 • Metro density4,958/km2 (12,840/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (Indonesia Western Time)
HDI 0.810 (Very High)
HDI rank1st in Indonesia (2019)
GRP Nominal $211.16 billion[4]
GDP PPP (2019) $660.32 billion[4]
GDP rank1st in Indonesia (2019)
Nominal per capitaUS$ 20,000 (2019)[4]
PPP per capitaUS$ 62,549 (2019)[4]
Per capita rank1st in Indonesia (2019)
Websitejakarta.go.id

Jakarta (/əˈkɑːrtə/; Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒaˈkarta] ( listen)), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. On the northwest coast of the world's most-populous island of Java, it is the centre of economy, culture and politics of Indonesia with a population of more than ten million as of 2014.[2][5] Although Jakarta only covers 699.5 square kilometres (270.1 sq mi), the smallest among any Indonesian provinces, its metropolitan area covers 6,392 square kilometres (2,468 sq mi); it is the world's second-most populous urban area after Tokyo, with a population of about 30 million as of 2010.[6] Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, have attracted migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, making it a melting pot of numerous cultures.[7] Jakarta is nicknamed the "Big Durian", the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region,[8] seen as the Indonesian equivalent of Big Apple (New York).[9]

Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies when it was known as Batavia. Jakarta is officially a province with special capital region status, though it is commonly referred to as a city. Its provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency. Jakarta is an alpha world city[10] and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat,[11] making it an important city for international diplomacy.[12] Financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, and corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Beijing.[13] In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion.[14][15]

Jakarta's prime challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlocked traffic, congestion, and flooding.[16] Additionally, Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea levels, has made the city more prone to flooding. It is also one of the fastest-sinking capitals in the world.[17] In August 2019, President Joko Widodo announced a move of the capital to the province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo.[18]

Jakarta Intro articles: 21

Etymology

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum

Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements. Below is the list of names used during its existence.

  • Sunda Kelapa (397–1527)
  • Jayakarta (1527–1619)
  • Batavia (1619–1942)
  • Djakarta (1942–1972)
  • Jakarta (1972–present)

Its current name 'Jakarta' derives from the word Jayakarta (Devanagari: जयकर्त) which is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit जय jaya (victorious)[19] and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired),[20] thus Jayakarta translates as 'victorious deed', 'complete act' or 'complete victory'. It was named after Muslim troops of Fatahillah successfully defeated and drove out the Portuguese away from the city in 1527.[21] Before it was called Jayakarta, the city was known as 'Sunda Kelapa'. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese apothecary during his journey to East Indies, wrote the city name on his magnum opus as Jacatra or Jacarta.[22]

In the 17th century, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals, mansions and ordered city layout.[23] After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng and the area around Merdeka Square), with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas.[24] During the Japanese occupation, the city was renamed as Jakaruta Tokubetsu-shi (ジャカルタ特別市, Jakarta Special City).[25]

The current official name used is Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta, which literally means Jakarta Capital Special Region.

Jakarta Etymology articles: 11

History

Pre-colonial era

The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta

The north coast area of western Java including Jakarta was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD.[26] The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th-century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia.[27] The area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement in the early 5th century. The Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.[28] Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century that Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java (Sunda). The source says the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture, and their houses were built on wooden piles.[29] The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa, (Sundanese: ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮨᮜᮕ) and by the 14th century, it was an important trading port for the Sunda kingdom.

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 while looking for a route for spices.[30] The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java.[31] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta[31] and became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asian trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of British trade in the Indonesian archipelago until 1682.[32] Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the British merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[33]

Colonial era

Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman c. 1656

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, his soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. His army and the British, however, were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen. The Dutch burned the British fort and forced them to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power, and they renamed the city Batavia in 1619.

Commercial opportunities in the city attracted native and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740, and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.[34] At the beginning of the 19th century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number that changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded were fabrics, mainly imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities.[35]

The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 forced residents to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913,[36] and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[34] By 1930, Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants,[37] including 37,067 Europeans.[38]

On 5 March 1942, the Japanese wrested Batavia from Dutch control, and the city was named Jakarta (Jakarta Special City (ジャカルタ特別市, Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi), under the special status that was assigned to the city). After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognised until full Indonesian independence on 27 December 1949. The city, now renamed Jakarta, was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia.

Independence era

After World War II ended, Indonesian nationalists declared independence on 17 August 1945,[39] and the government of the Jakarta City was changed into the Jakarta National Administration in the following month. During the Indonesian National Revolution, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta and established their capital in Yogyakarta.

After securing full independence, Jakarta again became the national capital in 1950.[34] With Jakarta selected to host the 1962 Asian Games, Sukarno, envisaging Jakarta as a great international city, instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[40][41] Projects included a cloverleaf interchange, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new building intended to be the headquarters of CONEFO. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which six top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge which killed at least 500,000 people, including some ethnic Chinese.[42] The event marked the beginning of Suharto's New Order. The first government was led by a mayor until the end of 1960 when the office was changed to that of a governor. The last mayor of Jakarta was Soediro until he was replaced by Soemarno Sosroatmodjo as governor. Based on law No. 5 of 1974 relating to regional governments, Jakarta was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia and one of the country's then 26 provinces.[43]

The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.

In 1966, Jakarta was declared a 'special capital region' (Daerah Khusus Ibukota), with a status equivalent to that of a province.[44] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as governor from 1966 to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built hospitals and a large number of schools. He cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects — some for the benefit of the Suharto family[45][46]— and attempted to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty.[47] Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom that transformed the face of Jakarta.[48]

The boom ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis, putting Jakarta at the centre of violence, protest and political manoeuvring. After three decades in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions peaked when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces. Four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings, forcing Suharto to resign.[49] Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.[50] In the post-Suharto era, Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[51] Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005,[34] with another in 2009.[52] In August 2007, Jakarta held its first-ever election to choose a governor as part of a nationwide decentralisation program that allows direct local elections in several areas.[53] Previously, governors were elected by the city's legislative body.

Jakarta History articles: 58

Government and politics

Jakarta is administratively equal to a province with special status. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor and a deputy governor, while the Jakarta Regional People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta, DPRD DKI Jakarta) is the legislative branch with 106 directly elected members. The Jakarta City Hall at the south of Merdeka Square houses the office of the governor and the deputy governor, and the main administrative office.

Executive governance consists of five administrative cities (Kota Administratif), each headed by a mayor—and one administrative regency (Kabupaten Administratif) headed by a regent (Bupati). Unlike other cities and regencies in Indonesia where the mayor or regent are directly elected, Jakarta's mayors and regents are chosen by the governor of Jakarta. Each city and regency is divided into administrative districts.

Aside from representatives to the Regional Representative Council, Jakarta sends 21 members to the People's Representative Council. The representatives are elected from Jakarta's three national electoral districts, which also includes overseas voters.[54] The Jakarta Smart City (JSC) program was launched on 14 December 2014 with a goal for smart governance, smart people, smart mobility, smart economy, smart living and a smart environment in the city using the web and various smartphone-based apps.[55]

Polda Metro Jaya maintains the law, security and order of Jakarta. It is led by a Regional Chief of police Kapolda, who holds the rank of Inspector General of Police.

Municipal finances

The Jakarta provincial government relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of its income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees, among others.[56] The ability of the regional government to respond to Jakarta's many problems is constrained by limited finances.

The provincial government consistently runs a surplus of between 15–20% of planned spending, primarily because of delays in procurement and other inefficiencies.[57] Regular under-spending is a matter of public comment.[58] In 2013, the budget was around Rp 50 trillion ($US5.2 billion), equivalent to around $US380 per citizen. Spending priorities were on education, transport, flood control, environment and social spending (such as health and housing).[59] Jakarta's regional budget (APBD) was Rp 77.1 trillion ($US5.92 billion), Rp 83.2 trillion ($US6.2 billion), and Rp 89 trillion ($US6.35 billion) for the year of 2017, 2018 and 2019 respectively.[60][61][62]

Administrative divisions

Map of the municipalities (Kota administrasi) in Jakarta province. Each city is divided into districts (Kecamatan).

Jakarta consists of five Kota Administratif (Administrative cities/municipalities), each headed by a mayor, and one Kabupaten Administratif (Administrative regency). Each city and regency is divided into districts/Kecamatan. The administrative cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:

  • Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and the administrative and political centre. It is divided into eight districts. It is characterised by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument (Monas), Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral and museums.[63]
  • West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat) has the city's highest concentration of small-scale industries. It has eight districts. The area includes Jakarta's Chinatown and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah. It contains part of Jakarta Old Town.[64]
  • South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. It has ten districts and functions as Jakarta's groundwater buffer,[65] but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the central business district is concentrated in Setiabudi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/Sudirman area of Central Jakarta.
  • East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) territory is characterised by several industrial sectors.[66] Also located in East Jakarta are Taman Mini Indonesia Indah and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport. This city has ten districts.
  • North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is bounded by the Java Sea. It is the location of Port of Tanjung Priok. Large- and medium-scale industries are concentrated there. It contains part of Jakarta Old Town, which was the centre of VOC trade activity during the colonial era. Also located in North Jakarta is Ancol Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol), the largest integrated tourism area in Southeast Asia.[67] North Jakarta is divided into six districts.

The only administrative regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta is the Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a district within North Jakarta. It is a collection of 105 small islands located on the Java Sea. It is of high conservation value because of its unique ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycling, and windsurfing, are the primary tourist activities in this territory. The main mode of transportation between the islands is speed boats or small ferries.[68]

Jakarta's cities/municipalities (Kota Administrasi/Kotamadya)
City/regency Area (km2) Total population (2010 Census) Total population (2014)[2] Population density
(per km2)
in 2010
Population density
(per km2)
in 2014
HDI
[69] 2015 estimates
South Jakarta 141.27 2,057,080 2,164,070 14,561 15,319 0.833 (Very High)
East Jakarta 188.03 2,687,027 2,817,994 14,290 14,987 0.807 (Very High)
Central Jakarta 48.13 898,883 910,381 18,676 18,915 0.796 (High)
West Jakarta 129.54 2,278,825 2,430,410 17,592 18,762 0.797 (High)
North Jakarta 146.66 1,645,312 1,729,444 11,219 11,792 0.796 (High)
Thousand Islands 8.7 21,071 23,011 2,422 2,645 0.688 (Medium)

Jakarta Government and politics articles: 26

Geography

Jakarta covers 699.5 square kilometres (270.1 sq mi), the smallest among any Indonesian provinces. However, its metropolitan area covers 6,392 square kilometres (2,468 sq mi), which extends into two of the bordering provinces of West Java and Banten.[70] The Greater Jakarta area includes three bordering regencies (Bekasi Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bogor Regency) and five adjacent cities (Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang).

Topography

Aerial view of North Jakarta

Jakarta is situated on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is plain land, some areas of which are below sea level[71] and subject to frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. It is one of only two Asian capital cities located in the southern hemisphere (along with East Timor's Dili). Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 (256 sq mi) of land area and 6,977 km2 (2,694 sq mi) of sea area.[72] The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay, north of the city.

Jakarta lies in a low and flat alluvial plain, ranging from −2 to 50 metres (−7 to 164 ft) with an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level with historically extensive swampy areas. Thirteen rivers flow through Jakarta. They are Ciliwung River, Kalibaru, Pesanggrahan, Cipinang, Angke River, Maja, Mookervart, Krukut, Buaran, West Tarum, Cakung, Petukangan, Sunter River and Grogol River.[73][74] They flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, then across the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River divides the city into the western and eastern districts.

Banjir Kanal Barat (west flood-control canal)

These rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta prone to flooding. Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 inches) each year, and up to 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) in the northern coastal areas. After a feasibility study, a ring dyke is under construction around Jakarta Bay to help cope with the threat from the sea. The dyke will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater and function as a toll road. The project, known as Giant Sea Wall Jakarta, is expected to be completed by 2025.[75] In January 2014, the central government agreed to build two dams in Ciawi, Bogor and a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile) tunnel from Ciliwung River to Cisadane River to ease flooding in the city.[76] Nowadays, a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile), with capacity 60 cubic metres (2,100 cubic feet) per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung River and the East Flood Canal is being worked on to ease the Ciliwung River overflows.[77]

Climate

Jakarta has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from October through May. The remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city's drier season (each of these four months has an average monthly rainfall of fewer than 100 millimetres (3.9 in)). Technically speaking, however, only August qualifies as the genuine dry season month, as it has less than 60 millimetres (2.4 in) of rainfall. Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peaks in January and February with average monthly rainfall of 299.7 millimetres (11.80 in), and its dry season's low point is in August with a monthly average of 43.2 mm (1.70 in).

Climate data for Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia (temperature: 1924–1994, precipitation: 1931–1994)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
34.4
(93.9)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
33.9
(93.0)
35.6
(96.1)
Average high °C (°F) 28.9
(84.0)
28.9
(84.0)
29.4
(84.9)
30.0
(86.0)
30.6
(87.1)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
30.6
(87.1)
31.1
(88.0)
31.1
(88.0)
30.6
(87.1)
29.4
(84.9)
30.1
(86.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0)
26.1
(79.0)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81.0)
27.0
(80.6)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.9
(75.0)
23.9
(75.0)
23.3
(73.9)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
Record low °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
20.6
(69.1)
20.0
(68.0)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 299.7
(11.80)
299.7
(11.80)
210.8
(8.30)
147.3
(5.80)
132.1
(5.20)
96.5
(3.80)
63.5
(2.50)
43.2
(1.70)
66.0
(2.60)
111.8
(4.40)
142.2
(5.60)
203.2
(8.00)
1,816
(71.5)
Average relative humidity (%) 85 85 83 82 82 81 78 76 75 77 81 82 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 189 182 239 255 260 255 282 295 288 279 231 220 2,975
Source 1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[78]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity and sun only)[79]
Climate data for Jakarta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 28.0
(82.0)
28.0
(82.0)
29.0
(84.0)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
29.0
(84.0)
Mean daily daylight hours 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0
Average Ultraviolet index 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11 10 10 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 10.8
Source: Weather Atlas [80]

Jakarta Geography articles: 32

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
19501,452,000—    
19602,678,740+84.5%
19703,915,406+46.2%
19805,984,256+52.8%
19908,174,756+36.6%
20008,389,759+2.6%
20109,625,579+14.7%
201910,638,689+10.5%
source:[81]

Jakarta attracts people from across Indonesia, often in search of employment. The 1961 census showed that 51% of the city's population was born in Jakarta.[82] Inward immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs.[43]

Between 1961 and 1980, the population of Jakarta doubled, and during the period 1980–1990, the city's population grew annually by 3.7%.[83] The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above government estimates.[84] The population rose from 4.5 million in 1970 to 9.5 million in 2010, counting only legal residents, while the population of Greater Jakarta rose from 8.2 million in 1970 to 28.5 million in 2010. As per 2014, the population of Jakarta stood at ten million,[85] with a population density of 15,174 people/km2.[86][87] As per 2014, the population of Greater Jakarta was 30 million, accounting for 11% of Indonesia's overall population.[88] It is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity.[89] The gender ratio was 102.8 (males per 100 females) in 2010[90] and 101.3 in 2014.[91]

Ethnicity

Ethnicities of Jakarta – 2010 Census[92]
Ethnic group Percentage
Javanese
36.17%
Betawi
28.29%
Sundanese
14.61%
Chinese
6.62%
Batak
3.42%
Minangkabau
2.85%
Malays
0.96%
Others
7.08%

Jakarta is a pluralistic and religiously diverse city. As of the 2010 Census, 36.17% of the city's population were Javanese, 28.29% Betawi, 14.61% Sundanese, 6.62% Chinese, 3.42% Batak, 2.85% Minangkabau, 0.96% Malays, Indo and others 7.08%.

The 'Betawi' (Orang Betawi, or 'people of Batavia') are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and became recognised as an ethnic group around the 18th–19th century. They mostly descend from Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs.[93][94] Betawi people are a creole ethnic group who came from various parts of Indonesia and intermarried with Chinese, Arabs and Europeans.[95] Betawi form a minority in the city; most lived in the fringe areas of Jakarta with hardly any Betawi-dominated regions of central Jakarta.[96]

The Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta

A significant Chinese community has lived in Jakarta for many centuries. They traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in the old Chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 5.53% of the Jakarta population, although this number may be under-reported.[97]

The Sumatran residents are diverse. According to the 2010 Census, roughly 346,000 Batak, 305,000 Minangkabau and 155,000 Malays lived in the city. The number of Batak people has grown in ranking, from eighth in 1930 to fifth in 2000. Toba Batak is the largest sub-ethnic Batak group in Jakarta.[98] Minangkabau people generally work as merchants, peddlers, and artisans, with more in white-collar professions, such as doctors, teachers and journalists.[99][100]

Language

Indonesian is the official and dominant language of Jakarta, while many elderly people speak Dutch or Chinese, depending on their upbringing. English is also widely used for communication, especially in Central and South Jakarta.[101] Each of the ethnic groups uses their mother language at home, such as Betawi, Javanese, and Sundanese. The Betawi language is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. It is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Chinese, and Arabic.

Religion

In 2017, Jakarta's religious composition was distributed over Islam (83.43%), Protestantism (8.63%), Catholicism (4.0%), Buddhism (3.74%), Hinduism (0.19%), and Confucianism (0.01%). About 231 people claimed to follow folk religions.[102]

Most pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in Jakarta are affiliated with the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama,[103] modernist organisations mostly catering to a socioeconomic class of educated urban elites and merchant traders. They give priority to education, social welfare programs and religious propagation.[104] Many Islamic organisations have headquarters in Jakarta, including Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesian Ulema Council, Muhammadiyah, Jaringan Islam Liberal, and Front Pembela Islam.

The Roman Catholic community has a Metropolis, the Archdiocese of Jakarta that includes West Java as part of the ecclesiastical province. There is also a Bahá'í community.[105]

Jakarta Demographics articles: 48