University in Washington D.C.
Top 3 Howard University related articles
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 3 Organization
- 4 Academics
- 4.1 Schools and colleges
- 4.2 Faculty
- 4.3 Honors programs
- 4.4 Martha and Bruce Karsh STEM Scholars Program
- 4.5 Google's Tech Exchange
- 4.6 Research
- 4.7 Publications
- 4.8 Howard University Libraries
- 5 Student life
- 6 Notable alumni
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
|Motto||Veritas et Utilitas|
Motto in English
|Truth and Service|
|Type||Private historically black research university|
|Established||March 2, 1867|
|Endowment||$712.4 million (2020)|
|President||Wayne A. I. Frederick|
|Students||9,399 (Fall 2019)|
|Undergraduates||6,526 (Fall 2019)|
|Postgraduates||2,873 (Fall 2019)|
|Campus||Urban; 300 acres (1.2 km2)|
|Colors||Blue, White, and Red|
|Nickname||Bison and Lady Bison|
|NCAA Division I – MEAC|
Howard University (Howard or simply HU) is a private, federally chartered historically black research university in Washington, D.C. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity" and accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.
Tracing its history to 1867, from its outset Howard has been nonsectarian and open to people of all sexes and races. It offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees in more than 120 programs, more than any other HBCU in the nation.
Howard University Intro articles: 3
Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of black clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Medicine. The new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, who was both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard later served as President of the University from 1869 to 1874.
The U.S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, and much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, and tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital). In its first five years of operation, Howard University educated over 150,000 freed slaves.
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was renovated and made a dormitory for women.
The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Howard University played an important role in the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service. This tactic was to play a prominent role in the later Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D.C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944.
Stokely Carmichael, also known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English.
|1867||Charles B. Boynton|
|1869–1874||Oliver Otis Howard|
|1875–1876||Edward P. Smith|
|1877–1889||William W. Patton|
|1906–1912||Wilbur P. Thirkield|
|1912–1918||Stephen M. Newman|
|1918–1926||J. Stanley Durkee|
|1926–1960||Mordecai Wyatt Johnson|
|1960–1969||James Nabrit Jr.|
|1969–1989||James E. Cheek|
|1995–2008||H. Patrick Swygert|
|2008–2013||Sidney A. Ribeau|
|2013–present||Wayne A. I. Frederick|
The first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People", and highlighted the accomplishments to date of African-Americans since the Civil War. His concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the voting rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives.
In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as HUCM's primary teaching hospital, with service to the surrounding community.
In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, and eventually occupied the university's Administration building. Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned.
In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis, and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence and dysfunction at the highest level." This came on the heels of several criticisms of Howard University and its management. The following month, Swygert announced he would retire in June 2008. The university announced in May 2008 that Sidney Ribeau of Bowling Green State University would succeed Swygert as president. Ribeau appointed a Presidential Commission on Academic Renewal to conduct a year-long self-evaluation that resulted in reducing or closing 20 out of 171 academic programs. For example, they proposed closing the undergraduate philosophy major and African studies major.
Six years later, in 2013, university insiders again alleged the university was in crisis. In April, the vice chairwoman of the university's board of trustees wrote a letter to her colleagues harshly criticizing the university's president and calling for a vote of no confidence; her letter was subsequently obtained by the media where it drew national headline. Two months later, the university's Council of Deans alleged "fiscal mismanagement is doing irreparable harm," blaming the university's senior vice president for administration, chief financial officer and treasurer and asking for his dismissal. In October, the faculty voted no confidence in the university's board of trustees executive committee, two weeks after university president Sidney A. Ribeau announced he would retire at the end of the year. On October 1, the Board of Trustees named Wayne A. I. Frederick Interim President. In July 2014 Howard's Board of Trustees named Frederick as the school's 17th president.
In 2018, nearly 1,000 students held a sit-in demanding injunction over the administration's use of funding. After the student protest ended, faculty voted "no confidence" in the university president, chief operating officer, provost, and board of trustees. The nine-day protest ended with university officials promising to meet most of their demands.
Howard University History articles: 54
The 256-acre (1.04 km2; 0.400 sq mi) campus, often referred to as "The Mecca", is in northwest Washington, D. C. Major improvements, additions and changes occurred at the school in the aftermath of World War I. New buildings were built under the direction of architect Albert Cassell.
Howard University has several historic landmarks on campus, such as Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Fredrick Douglass Memorial Hall, and the Founders Library.
The Howard University Gallery of Art was established by Howard's Board of Trustees in 1928. The gallery's permanent collection has grown to over 4,000 works of art and continues to serve as an academic resource for the Howard community.
Howard University has nine residence halls for students: Drew Hall (male freshmen), College Hall North (female freshmen), The Harriet Tubman Quadrangle - "Quad" (female freshmen), Cook Hall (male freshmen), Bethune Annex (co-ed, undergraduates), Plaza Towers West (co-ed, undergraduates), College Hall South (co-ed) and Plaza Towers East (co-ed, undergraduates).
Howard University Hospital, opened in 1975 on the eastern end of campus, was built on the site of Griffith Stadium, in use from the 1890s to 1965 as home of the first, second and third incarnations of the MLB Senators, as well as the NFL's Washington Redskins, several college football teams (including Georgetown, GWU and Maryland) and part-time home of the Homestead Grays of the Negro National League.
Howard University Campus articles: 17
The university is led by a Board of Trustees that includes a faculty trustee from the undergraduate colleges, a faculty trustee from the graduate and professional colleges serving three-year terms, two student trustees, each serving one-year terms, and three alumni-elected trustees, each serving three-year terms.
|U.S. News & World Report||80|
|U.S. News & World Report||761|
Schools and colleges
- College of Engineering and Architecture
- College of Nursing & Allied Health Sciences
- College of Pharmacy
- Howard University College of Arts and Sciences
- Howard University College of Dentistry
- Howard University School of Business
- Howard University School of Communications
- Howard University College of Medicine
- Howard University School of Law
- Middle School of Mathematics and Science
- School of Divinity
- School of Education
- School of Social Work
Howard faculty include: member of Congress from Maryland Roscoe Bartlett, blood shipment pioneer Charles Drew, Emmy-winning actor Al Freeman Jr., suffragist Elizabeth Piper Ensley, civil rights lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston, media entrepreneur Cathy Hughes, marine biologist Ernest Everett Just, professor of surgery LaSalle D. Leffall Jr., political consultant Ron Walters, novelist and diplomat E. R. Braithwaite, filmmaker Haile Gerima, and psychiatrist Frances Cress Welsing.
Howard offers four selective honors programs for its most high-achieving undergraduate students: the College of Arts & Sciences Honors Program, the School of Education Honors Program, the Executive Leadership Honors Program in the School of Business, and the Annenberg Honors Program in the School of Communications.
Martha and Bruce Karsh STEM Scholars Program
In 2017, Howard established the Bison STEM Scholars Program to increase the number of underrepresented minorities with high-level research careers in science, engineering, technology, and mathematics. Bison STEM Scholars are given full scholarships and committed to earning a PhD or a combined MD–PhD in a STEM discipline. The highly competitive program annually accepts approximately 30 undergraduate students for each new cohort. As of 2020, the Bison STEM Scholars Program was renamed the Martha and Bruce Karsh Stem Scholars Program (KSSP) following the $10 million donation from the family's foundation.
Google's Tech Exchange
In 2017, Google Inc. announced it established a pilot residency program named "Howard University West" on its campus in Mountain View, California, to help increase underrepresented minorities in the tech industry. In 2018, the program expanded from a three-month summer program to a full academic year program and name changed to "Tech Exchange" to be inclusive of other minority-serving institutions added to the program. Howard students in the program will learn from senior Google engineers, practice the latest coding techniques, and experience tech culture in Mountain View for course credits towards their degrees.
Interdisciplinary Research Building
Howard's most prominent research building is the Interdisciplinary Research Building (IRB). Opened in 2016, the multi-story, 81,670 square foot, state-of-the-art research facility was completed for $70 million. The IRB was designed to promote more collaborative and innovative research on campus.
Moorland-Spingarn Research Center
"The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center (MSRC) is recognized as one of the world's largest and most comprehensive repositories for the documentation of the history and culture of people of African descent in Africa, the Americas, and other parts of the world. The MSRC collects, preserves, and makes available for research a wide range of resources chronicling black experiences."
NASA University Research Center (BCCSO)
The Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation (BCCSO) is a NASA University Research Center at the Beltsville, Maryland campus of Howard University. BCCSO consists of a multidisciplinary group of Howard faculty in partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Division, other academic institutions, and government. This group is led by three Principal Investigators, Everette Joseph, also the director of BCCSO, Demetrius Venable and Belay Demoz. BCCSO trains science and academic leaders to understand atmospheric processes through atmospheric observing systems and analytical methods.
Howard University is the publisher of The Journal of Negro Education, which began publication in 1932. The Howard University Bison Yearbook is created, edited and published during the school year to provide students a year-in-review. Howard University also publishes the Capstone, the official e-newsletter for the university; and the Howard Magazine, the official magazine for the university, which is published three times a year.
Howard University Libraries
- The Founders Library, the main library, founded in January 1939.
- The School of Business Library
- The School of Divinity Library
- The School of Social Work Library
- The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center
- The Channing Pollock Theatre Collection
- The Patent and Trademark Resource Center
- The Undergraduate Library (UGL).
- Afro-American Studies Center
Howard University Academics articles: 33
The U.S. students come from the following regions: New England 2%, Mid-West 8%, South 22%, Mid-Atlantic 55%, and West 12%. Nearly 4% of the student body are international students. Howard University is 86% African-American/Black.
There are over 200 student organizations and special interest groups established on campus.
Howard produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows.
In 2006, Howard's six-year graduation rate was 68%. In 2009, 1,270 of the 1,476 full-time freshmen enrolled were found to have financial need (86%). Of these, Howard could meet the full financial aid needs of 316 freshmen. Howard's average undergraduate student's indebtedness at graduation is $16,798.
Greek letter organizations
Howard University is the founding site of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and five of the nine NPHC organizations. The Alpha (founding) Chapters of Alpha Kappa Alpha (1908), Omega Psi Phi (1911), Delta Sigma Theta (1913), Phi Beta Sigma (1914), and Zeta Phi Beta (1920) were established on Howard's campus. However, the Beta Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was the first to appear in 1907. Also in 1920, the Xi Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi appeared on campus, followed by the Alpha Phi Chapter of Sigma Gamma Rho in 1939, and the Alpha Tau Chapter of Iota Phi Theta in 1983. Three percent of undergraduate men and five percent of undergraduate women are active in Howard's NPHC.
Other notable Greek letter organizations registered at Howard include Phi Beta Kappa, Iota Phi Lambda, Tau Beta Pi, Delta Sigma Pi, Phi Sigma Pi, Alpha Phi Omega, Alpha Nu Omega, Alpha Kappa Psi, Phi Sigma Rho, Gamma Iota Sigma, Phi Mu Alpha, Sigma Alpha Iota, Gamma Sigma Sigma, Kappa Kappa Psi, Tau Beta Sigma, Chi Eta Phi, and Phi Alpha Delta.
Howard Homecoming week is the most prominent and richest cultural tradition of the institution. Over 100,000 of alumni, students, celebrity guests, and visitors are in attendance to patronize the many events and attractions affiliated with the festive week on and near campus. While the specific calendar of events changes from year to year, the traditional homecoming events include the Homecoming Football Game and Tailgate, Pep Rally, Coronation Ball, Greek Step-Show (Howard NPHC Greeks), and Fashion Show. After a two-year hiatus, the Yardfest returned in 2016 as one of the cherished traditions.
Springfest is an annual tradition created by the Undergraduate Student Association (UGSA) to celebrate the arrival of spring. Springfest is similar to homecoming week in the fall but on a smaller scale and more emphasis on the student body. Springfest events traditionally include the Fashion Show, Talent Show, Vendor Fair, Poetry Showcase, Beauty Conference, Charity Basketball Game, and a major community service event. The schedule of events changes slightly each year.
The Bison Ball and Excellence Awards is an annual black tie gala hosted by the Howard University Student Association (HUSA). A select number of students, faculty, organizations, and administrators from the Howard community are honored for their exceptional accomplishments. This event takes place near the end of every spring semester.
Resfest week is a Howard tradition that involves freshmen living in residence halls on campus competing in several organized competitions (field day, academic debate, stroll, step-show etc) for campus bragging rights. This event takes place on campus near the end of every spring semester.
Howard University Student life articles: 39
Distinguished alumni of Howard University include a Vice President of the United States, several United States diplomats and United States governors, a United States Ambassador to the United Nations, foreign royals, seven foreign heads of state, 11 members of United States Congress, a Supreme Court Justice, directors and executives of Fortune 500 companies, Academy Award– and Emmy Award–winning actors, Grammy Award—winning songwriters and producers, two US Army generals, a US Air Force general and Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, and Nobel laureates including Nobel Prize for Literature winner Toni Morrison. Additional alumni include civil rights activists and pioneers in the Civil Rights Movement, a United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, a United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, a United States Secretary of Agriculture, 12 Mayors of American cities, and three State Attorneys General. Howard University has also produced many firsts, including Roger Arliner Young who became the first African-American woman to receive a doctorate in zoology, Benjamin O. Davis Sr. the first African-American US Army general, , Johnson O. Akinleye, 12th Chancellor of North Carolina Central University, Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Supreme Court justice, and Edward W. Brooke III who became the first African-American elected to the US Senate, among others. Howard University also counts four Rhodes Scholarship winners, 22 Pickering Fellows, 11 Truman Scholars, over 70 Fulbright Scholars, a Schwarzman Scholar, a Goldwater Scholar, and two Pulitzer Prize winners and numerous other Pulitzer Prize nominees among its alumni. To date Howard University has granted over 120,000 degrees and produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university.
Zora Neale Hurston, author and anthropologist
Paul Laurence Dunbar, novelist and poet
Ta-Nehisi Coates, writer and journalist
Chadwick Boseman, actor
Phylicia Rashad, actress
Isaiah Washington, actor
Roxie Roker, actress
Taraji P. Henson, actress
Nick Cannon, comedian, rapper and television host
Howard University Notable alumni articles: 54
- A Bridge Across and Beyond by artist Richard Hunt (a sculpture at the Blackburn Fountain)
- Howard Theatre
- List of presidents of Howard University
- As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
- "HU's Provost Anthony Wutoh".
- "Fall 2014-Fall 2019 Students Enrollment Trends". Howard University.
- Howard University Identity Guidelines (PDF). May 22, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- "Carnegie Classifications Institution Lookup". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Center for Postsecondary Education. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
- "Brief History of Howard University". Howard.edu. Archived from the original on January 17, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "The Semi-Centennial of Howard University". Howard University Record. 10 (2). March 1916.
- "U.S. Department of Education funding of Howard University". April 22, 2014.
- "Little Known Black History Fact: Howard University". Black America Web. December 18, 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Woodson at the Library of Congress".
- Muse, Clifford L. (1991). "Howard University and the Federal Government During the Presidential Administrations of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1928-1945". The Journal of Negro History. 76 (1/4): 1–20. doi:10.1086/JNHv76n1-4p1. JSTOR 2717406. S2CID 149933299.
- Warren, Wini (1999). Black Women Scientists in the United States. Indiana University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780253336033.
- "Segregated Student Housing and the Activists Who Defeated It". umn.edu. University of Minnesota. 2017. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Biography of Alan Locke".
- "Biography of Ralph Johnson Bunche".
- "April 1943 Pauli Murray organizes Howard student sit-ins". SNCC Digital Gateway.
- Murray, Pauli (November 1944). "A Blueprint for First Class Citizenship". The Crisis. reprinted in Carson, Clayborne; Garrow, David J.; Kovach, Bill (2003). Reporting Civil Rights: American journalism, 1941–1963. Library of America. pp. 62–67. ISBN 9781931082280. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "Biography of Kwame Ture".
- "Rayford W. Logan (1897–1982)". blackpast.org. January 21, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- "Information on Edward Franklin Frazier". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
- "Calvin Coolidge: Address at Howard University: "The Progress of a People"". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- "Commencement Address at Howard University: "To Fulfill These Rights", June 4, 1965". LBJ Presidential Library. Archived from the original on October 26, 2019.
- Johnson, Lyndon B. "To Fulfill These Rights". What So Proudly We Hail. Archived from the original on November 8, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "June 2002 CDA Journal - Feature Article, Copyright 2002 Journal of the California Dental Association". Cda.org. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Stanley, Alessandra; Jacob V. Lamar (March 20, 1989). "Saying No to Lee Atwater". Time.com. Time Warner.
- Susan Kinzie; Keith L. Alexander (March 10, 2007). "Ouster Sought of Howard President". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- "Howard University". The Washington Post. May 21, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- Strauss, Valerie (May 8, 2008). "Bowling Green President Named to Top Position". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- de Vise, Daniel (December 14, 2010). "Howard prepares for test of its future". The Washington Post. p. B1.
- Jack Stripling (June 7, 2013). "In Ominous Letter, a Trustee Blasts Howard U.'s President and Board Chair". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (June 7, 2013). "Howard trustee says university in 'trouble'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (July 1, 2013). "Howard academic deans allege 'fiscal mismanagement'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (October 16, 2013). "Howard faculty group votes no confidence in key Board of Trustees committee". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "Howard University Press Release". Howard University. October 1, 2013. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
- Emma Brown; Wesley Robinson (July 22, 2014). "Wayne A.I. Frederick named 17th president of Howard University". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- Rhodan, Maya (May 7, 2016). "President Obama Strikes Hopeful Tone in Howard University Commencement Speech". Time. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Larimer, Sarah (April 12, 2018). "No confidence: Howard faculty members say in vote they have lost faith in school's leaders". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- Romo, Vanessa (April 6, 2018). "9-Day Student Protest At Howard University Ends With A Deal". The Two-Way. NPR.
- Lumpkin, Lauren (July 28, 2020). "Howard University announces largest single-donor gift, from philanthropist MacKenzie Scott". The Washington Post.
- "Howard Facts 2009 (PDF)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Clifford L. Muse, Jr. (1991). "Howard University and The Federal Government During The Presidential Administrations of Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1928–1945". The Journal of Negro History. Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc. 76 (1/4): 1–20. doi:10.1086/JNHv76n1-4p1. JSTOR 2717406. S2CID 149933299.
- "Howard's Gallery of Art Among Top 50 in the United States - Howard University". Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020: National/Regional Rank". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
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- Starr, Douglas P. (2000). Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce. New York: Quill. pp. 111–117. ISBN 978-0-7515-3000-1.
- "Acting Legend Al Freeman Jr. Remembered at Howard University – Howard University News Room". Howard.edu. March 16, 2000. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "Denver cemetery's data "very valuable" to state". The Denver Post. December 23, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
- "E. R. Braithwaite, Author of 'To Sir, With Love', Dies at 104". The New York Times. December 13, 2016.
- "About | Karsh STEM Scholars". karshstemscholars.howard.edu. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "New Heights in STEM | Howard Magazine". magazine.howard.edu. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "Howard Receives $10 Million Donation, Largest in School History". Retrieved February 8, 2020.