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Ho Chi Minh City

City of Vietnam

Top 10 Ho Chi Minh City related articles

Ho Chi Minh City

Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh

Saigon/Sài Gòn
Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh
Clockwise from top: Ho Chi Minh City downtown (District 1), Bến Thành Market, Temple of Hùng Kings (Ho Chi Minh City), Independence Palace, Landmark 81, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica
Paris of the Orient[1]
Paulatim crescam[2]
Interactive map outlining Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Location within Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh City
Location within Southeast Asia
Coordinates: 10°48′N 106°39′E / 10.800°N 106.650°E / 10.800; 106.650Coordinates: 10°48′N 106°39′E / 10.800°N 106.650°E / 10.800; 106.650
Founded byNguyễn Hữu Cảnh
CapitalDistrict 1
Districts1 sub-city, 16 urban districts & 5 rural districts
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyHo Chi Minh City People's Council [vi]
 • Secretary of CPVNguyễn Văn Nên
 • Chairman of People's CouncilNguyễn Thị Lệ
 • Chairman of People's CommitteeNguyễn Thành Phong
 • Municipality2,061.2 km2 (795.83 sq mi)
 • Metro
30,595 km2 (11,813 sq mi)
19 m (63 ft)
 (1 April 2019)[4][5]
 • Municipality8,993,082 (1st)
 • Density4,292/km2 (11,120/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density697.2/km2 (1,806/sq mi)
Ethnic groups
 • Vietnamese[7]94.77%
 • Hoa4.26%
 • Khmer0.56%
 • Chams0.12%
 • Tày0.05%
 • Mường0.04%
 • Nùng0.03%
 • Others0.17%
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Postal code
Area codes28
ISO 3166 codeVN-SG
License plate41, 50 – 59
GRP (Nominal)2019
– TotalUS$61.7 billion[4]
– Per capitaUS$6,862
GRP (PPP)2019
– TotalUS$190.3 billion[8]
– Per capitaUS$21,163
International airportsTan Son Nhat International Airport
Long Thanh International Airport (under construction)

Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; Vietnamese pronunciation: [tʰàjŋ̟ fǒ hò cǐ mīŋ̟] or [tʰàn fǒ hò cǐ mɨ̄n] ( listen)), or Saigon (Vietnamese: Sài Gòn; [sàj ɣɔ̀n] or [ʂàj ɣɔ̀ŋ]), is the largest city in Vietnam, situated in the south. In the southeastern region, the city surrounds the Saigon River and covers about 2,061 square kilometres (796 square miles).

Prior to Vietnamese settlement in the 17th century, the city was a scarcely populated area that had been part of historic empires of Funan, Champa, and Khmer. With the arrival of Vietnamese, the area became more populated and officials began establishing the city from 1623 to 1698. After it was ceded by the last Vietnamese dynasty to the French in 1862, the name Saigon was adopted and the city underwent urbanisation to become a financial centre in the region. The city was the capital of South Vietnam until the end of the Vietnam War with North Vietnamese victory in 1975. In 1976, the government of a unified Vietnam named Saigon in honour of Ho Chi Minh.

An economic centre of Vietnam, it is also an emerging international destination, with popular landmarks related to remnants of its history showcased through its architecture from Chinese and French colonial periods. A major transportation hub, the city hosts the Tan Son Nhat International Airport, the busiest airport in Vietnam. With increasing development, Ho Chi Minh City is also undergoing construction of educational institutions and transportation, and also serves as a major media and entertainment outlet.

Ho Chi Minh City Intro articles: 6


Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic, cultural and political groups. Originally a trading port city of the Khmer Empire[9][10] known as Prey Nokor (Khmer: ព្រៃនគរ),[11][12][13][14] it is still known as Prey Nokor to Cambodians today.[12][13] In time, under the control of the Vietnamese, it was officially renamed Gia Dinh (), a name that was retained until the time of the French conquest in the 1860s, when it adopted the name Sài Gòn, westernized as Saïgon,[10] although the city was still indicated as on Vietnamese maps written in Chữ Hán until at least 1891.[15]

The current name, Ho Chi Minh City, was given after reunification in 1976 to honor Ho Chi Minh.[nb 1] Even today, however, the informal name of Sài Gòn remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally, especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. However, there is a technical difference between the two terms: Sài Gòn is commonly used to refer to the city center in District 1 and the adjacent areas, while Ho Chi Minh City refers more to the entire modern city with all its urban and rural districts.[10]


Sài Gòn may refer to the kapok (bông gòn) trees that are common around the city.

An etymology of Saigon (or Sài Gòn in Vietnamese) is that Sài is a Sino-Vietnamese word (Hán tự: ) meaning "firewood, lops, twigs; palisade", while Gòn is another Sino-Vietnamese word (Hán tự: ) meaning "stick, pole, bole", and whose meaning evolved into "cotton" in Vietnamese (bông gòn, literally "cotton stick", i.e., "cotton plant", then shortened to gòn). This name may refer to the many kapok plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, and which can still be seen at Cây Mai temple and surrounding areas.[17] It may also refer to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor, already referred.[18]

Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon ( ), the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means "embankment" (French: quais),[nb 2] and Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor (Khmer: ព្រៃនគរ). Prey means forest or jungle, and nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, and related to the English word 'Nation' – thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom".[nb 3]

Truong Mealy (former director of King Norodom Sihanouk's royal Cabinet), says that, according to a Khmer Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor (Khmer: ព្រះរាជនគរ), "Royal City"; later locally corrupted to "Prey kor", meaning "kapok forest", from which "Saigon" was derived ("kor" meaning "kapok" in Khmer and Cham, going into Vietnamese as "gòn").[21]

Ho Chi Minh City

The current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, adopted in 1976 and abbreviated TP.HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, and in French as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville (the circumflex is sometimes omitted), abbreviated HCMV. The name commemorates Ho Chi Minh, the first leader of North Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his later years. It combines a common Vietnamese surname (Hồ, ) with a given name meaning "enlightened will" (from Sino-Vietnamese ; Chí meaning 'will' or 'spirit', and Minh meaning 'light'), in essence, meaning "light bringer".[22] Nowadays, Saigon is commonly used to refer to the city's central business districts, whereas Ho Chi Minh City is used to refer to the whole city.[23]

Ho Chi Minh City Etymology articles: 18


Khmer period

The earliest settlement in the area was a Funan temple at the location of the current Phụng Sơn Buddhist temple, founded in the 4th century AD.[14] A settlement called Baigaur was established on the site in the 11th century by the Champa.[14] Baigaur was renamed Prey Nokor around 1145,[14] meaning "Forest City". An alternative name was Preah Reach Nokor which, according to a Khmer Chronicle, meant "Royal City".[21] Prey Nokor grew on the site of a small fishing village and area of forest, and became a well-known trading port in Southeast Asia by the 14th century.[24]

In 1623, King Chey Chettha II of Cambodia (1618–28) allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn civil war in Vietnam to settle in the area of Prey Nokor and to set up a custom house there.[14] Increasing waves of Vietnamese settlers, which the Cambodian kingdom could not impede because it was weakened by war with Thailand, slowly Vietnamized the area.[11] The loss of the city and the rest of the Mekong Delta cut off Cambodia's access to the East Sea. Subsequently, the only remaining Khmers' sea access was south-westerly at the Gulf of Thailand e.g. at Kampong Saom and Kep.[25]

Nguyễn Dynasty rule

A French drawing of the French Siege of Saigon in 1859 by joint Franco-Spanish forces

In 1698, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế by sea to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the area, thus detaching the area from Cambodia, which was not strong enough to intervene. He is often credited with the expansion of Saigon into a significant settlement.[26][27] In 1788, Nguyễn Ánh captured the city, and used it as the base for resist against Tây Sơn.[28] Two years later, a large Vauban citadel called Gia Định, or Thành Bát Quái ("Eight Diagrams") was built by Victor Olivier de Puymanel, one of the Nguyễn Ánh's French mercenaries.[29]

The citadel was captured by Lê Văn Khôi during his revolt of 1833–35 against Emperor Minh Mạng. Following the revolt, Minh Mạng ordered it to be dismantled, and a new citadel, called Phụng Thành, was built in 1836.[30] In 1859, the citadel was destroyed by the French following the Battle of Kỳ Hòa.[30] Initially called Gia Dinh, the Vietnamese city became Saigon in the 18th century.[14]

French colonial era

The crest of Saigon.

Ceded to France by the 1862 Treaty of Saigon,[31] the city was planned by the French to transform into a large town for colonization. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, construction of various French-style buildings began, including a botanical garden, the Norodom Palace, Hotel Continental, Notre-Dame Cathedral, and Bến Thành Market, among many others.[32][33] In April 1865, Gia Dinh Bao was established in Saigon, becoming the first newspaper published in Vietnam.[34] During the French colonial era, Saigon became known as "Pearl of the Orient" (Hòn ngọc Viễn Đông),[35] or "Paris of the Extreme Orient".[36]

On 27 April 1931, a new région called Saigon–Cholon consisting of Saigon and Cholon was formed; the name Cholon was dropped after South Vietnam gained independence from France in 1955.[37] From about 256,000 in 1930,[38] Saigon's population rose to 1.2 million in 1950.[38]

Republic of Vietnam era

Street view of Saigon in 1968
Saigon Opera House in 1967

In 1949, former Emperor Bảo Đại made Saigon the capital of the State of Vietnam with himself as head of state.[39] In 1954, the Geneva Agreement partitioned Vietnam along the 17th parallel (Bến Hải River), with the communist Việt Minh, under Ho Chi Minh, gaining complete control of the northern half of the country, while the southern half gaining independence from France.[40] The State officially became the Republic of Vietnam when Bảo Đại was deposed by his Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in the 1955 referendum,[40] with Saigon as its capital.[41] On 22 October 1956, the city was given the official name, Đô Thành Sài Gòn ("Capital City Saigon").[42] After the decree of 27 March 1959 came into effect, Saigon was divided into eight districts and 41 wards.[42] In December 1966, two wards from old An Khánh Commune of Gia Định, were formed into District 1, then seceded shortly later to became District 9.[43] In July 1969, District 10 and District 11 were founded, and by 1975, the city's area consisted of eleven districts, Gia Định, Củ Chi District (Hậu Nghĩa) and Phú Hòa District (Bình Dương).[43]

Saigon serves as the financial, industrial and transport center of the Republic of Vietnam.[44] In the late 1950s, with the U.S. providing nearly $2 billion in aid to the Diệm regime, the country's economy grew rapidly under capitalism;[42] by 1960, over half of South Vietnam's factories were located in Saigon.[45] However, beginning in the 1960s, Saigon experienced economic downturn and high inflation, as it was completely dependent to U.S. aids and imports from other countries.[42] As a result of widespread urbanization, with the population reaching 3.3 million by 1970, the city was described by the USAID as being turned "into a huge slum".[46] The city was also suffered from "prostitutes, drug addicts, corrupt officials, beggars, orphans, and Americans with money", and according to Stanley Karnow, it was "a black-market city in the largest sense of the word".[41]

On 28 April 1955, the Vietnamese National Army launched an attack against Bình Xuyên military force in the city. The battle lasted until May, killing an estimated 500 people and leaving about 20,000 homeless.[41][47] Ngô Đình Diệm then later turned on other paramilitary groups in Saigon, including the Hoa Hao Buddhist reform movement.[41] On 11 June 1963, Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức burned himself in the city, in protest of the Diệm regime. On 1 November of the same year, Diệm was assassinated in Saigon, in a successful coup by Dương Văn Minh.[41]

During the 1968 Tet Offensive, communist forces launched a failed attempt to capture the city. On 30 April 1975, Saigon fell, ending the Vietnam War with a victory for North Vietnam,[48] and the city came under the control of the Vietnamese People's Army.[41]

Post–Vietnam War and today

In 1976, upon the establishment of the unified communist Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the city of Saigon (including the Cholon area), the province of Gia Ðịnh and two suburban districts of two other nearby provinces were combined to create Ho Chi Minh City, in honor of the late Communist leader Ho Chi Minh.[nb 4] At the time, the city covers an area of 1,295.5 square kilometers with eight districts and five rurals: Thủ Đức, Hóc Môn, Củ Chi, Bình Chánh, and Nhà Bè.[43] Since 1978, administrative divisions in the city has been revised numerous times,[43] most recently in 2020, when District 2, District 9, and Thủ Đức District were consolidated to form a municipal city.[50]

Today, Ho Chi Minh City, along with its surrounding provinces, is described as "the manufacturing hub" of Vietnam, and "an attractive business hub".[51] It was ranked the 111th-most expensive major city in the world according to a 2020 survey of 209 cities,[52] and ranked 153rd worldwide in quality of living in a 2019 survey of 231 major cities.[53] In terms of international connectedness, as of 2020, the city was classified as a "Beta" city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[54]

Ho Chi Minh City History articles: 68


Ho Chi Minh City is located in the south-eastern region of Vietnam, 1,760 km (1,090 mi) south of Hanoi. The average elevation is 5 metres (16 ft) above sea level for the city center and 16 metres (52 ft) for the suburb areas.[55] It borders Tây Ninh Province and Bình Dương Province to the north, Đồng Nai Province and Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province to the east, Long An Province to the west and the East Sea to the south with a coast 15 km (9 mi) long. The city covers an area of 2,095 km2 (809 sq mi or 0.63% of the surface of Vietnam), extending up to Củ Chi District (12 mi or 19 km from the Cambodian border) and down to Cần Giờ on the Eastern Sea. The distance from the northernmost point (Phú Mỹ Hưng Commune, Củ Chi District) to the southernmost one (Long Hòa Commune, Cần Giờ District) is 102 km (63 mi), and from the easternmost point (Long Bình ward, District Nine) to the westernmost one (Bình Chánh Commune, Bình Chánh District) is 47 km (29 mi).


The city has a tropical climate, specifically tropical savanna (Aw), with a high average humidity of 78–82%.[56] The year is divided into two distinct seasons.[56] The rainy season, with an average rainfall of about 1,800 millimetres (71 in) annually (about 150 rainy days per year), usually lasts from May to November.[56] The dry season lasts from December to April.[56] The average temperature is 28 °C (82 °F), with little variation throughout the year.[56] The highest temperature recorded was 40.0 °C (104 °F) in April while the lowest temperature recorded was 13.8 °C (57 °F) in January.[56] On average, the city experiences between 2,400 and 2,700 hours of sunshine per year.[56]

Climate data for Tan Son Nhat International Airport, Ho Chi Minh City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.4
Average high °C (°F) 31.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0
Average low °C (°F) 21.1
Record low °C (°F) 13.8
Average rainfall mm (inches) 13.8
Average rainy days 2.4 1.0 1.9 5.4 17.8 19.0 22.9 22.4 23.1 20.9 12.1 6.7 155.6
Average relative humidity (%) 72 70 70 72 79 82 83 83 85 84 80 77 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 245 246 272 239 195 171 180 172 162 182 200 226 2,490
Source 1: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology,[57] Asian Development Bank[56]
Source 2: World Meteorological Organization (rainfall)[58]


Population density and elevation above sea level in Ho Chi Minh City (2010)

Ho Chi Minh City is considered one of the cities most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, particularly flooding. During the rainy season, a combination of high tide, heavy rains, high flow volume in the Saigon River and Dong Nai River and land subsidence results in regular flooding in several parts of the city.[59][60] A once-in-100 year flood would cause 23% of the city to flood.[61]

Ho Chi Minh City Geography articles: 15


Night view of the city from Bitexco Financial Tower
Administrative divisions of HCMC's urban districts and municipal city
1–12. Districts 1 to 12
2. Thủ Đức City
13. Bình Thạnh
14. Bình Tân
15. Gò Vấp
16. Phú Nhuận
17. Tân Bình
18. Tân Phú

Ho Chi Minh City is a municipality at the same level as Vietnam's provinces, which is subdivided into 22 district-level sub-divisions (as of 2020):

  • 1 city (211 km2 or 81 sq mi in area), which is designated municipal city (thành phố thuộc thành phố trực thuộc trung ương):

They are further subdivided into 5 commune-level towns (or townlets), 58 communes, and 249 wards (as of 2020, see List of HCMC administrative units below).[62]

On December 9th 2020 it was announced that District 2, District 9 and Thủ Đức District would be consolidated and was approved by Standing Committee of the National Assembly.[63][50]

City government

The Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee is a 13-member executive branch of the city. The current chairman is Nguyễn Thành Phong. There are several vice chairmen and chairwomen on the committee with responsibility over various city departments.

The legislative branch of the city is the Ho Chi Minh City People's Council and consists of 105 members. The current Chairwoman is Nguyễn Thị Lệ.

The judiciary branch of the city is the Ho Chi Minh City People's Court. The current Chief Judge is Lê Thanh Phong.

The executive committee of Communist Party of Ho Chi Minh City is the leading organ of the Communist Party in Ho Chi Minh City. The current secretary is Nguyễn Văn Nên. The permanent deputy secretary of the Communist Party is ranked second in the city politics after the Secretary of the Communist Party, while chairman of the People's Committee is ranked third and the chairman of the People's Council is ranked fourth.

Ho Chi Minh City Administration articles: 23


Historical population
Year Area km2 Population Person/km2 Urban Rural
1999 - 5,034,058 - 4,207,825 826,233
2004 - 6,117,251 - 5,140,412 976,839
2009 2,097.1 7,162,864 3,416 5,880,615 1,282,249
2019 2,061.2 8,993,082 4,363 7,127,364 1,865,718
2010 2,095.6 7,346,600 3,506 6,114,300 1,232,300
2011 2,095.6 7,498,400 3,578 6,238,000 1,260,400
2012 2,095.6 7,660,300 3,655 6,309,100 1,351,100
2013 2,095.6 7,820,000 3,732 6,479,200 1,340,800
2014 2,095.5 7,981,900 3,809 6,554,700 1,427,200
2015 2,095.5 8,127,900 3,879 6,632,800 1,495,100
2016 2,061.4 8,287,000 4,020 6,733,100 1,553,900
2017 2,061.2 8,444,600 4,097 6,825,300 1,619,300

The population of Ho Chi Minh City, as of the 1 October 2004 census, was 6,117,251 (of which 19 inner districts had 5,140,412 residents and 5 suburban districts had 976,839 inhabitants).[62] In mid-2007, the city's population was 6,650,942 – with the 19 inner districts home to 5,564,975 residents and the five suburban districts containing 1,085,967 inhabitants. The result of the 2009 Census shows that the city's population was 7,162,864 people,[72] about 8.34% of the total population of Vietnam, making it the highest population-concentrated city in the country. As of the end of 2012, the total population of the city was 7,750,900 people, an increase of 3.1% from 2011.[73] As an administrative unit, its population is also the largest at the provincial level. According to the 2019 census, Ho Chi Minh City has a population of over 8.9 million within the city proper and over 21 million within its metropolitan area.[4]

The city's population is expected to grow to 13.9 million by 2025.[74] The population of the city is expanding faster than earlier predictions. In August 2017 the city's mayor, Nguyen Thanh Phong, admitted that previous estimates of 8–10 million were drastic underestimations.[75] The actual population (including those who have not officially registered) was estimated 13 million in 2017.[76] The Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area, a metropolitan area covering most parts of the southeast region plus Tiền Giang Province and Long An Province under planning, will have an area of 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 sq mi) with a population of 20 million inhabitants by 2020.[77] Inhabitants of Ho Chi Minh City are usually known as "Saigonese" in English and "dân Sài Gòn" in Vietnamese.

Ethnic groups

The majority of the population are ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) at about 93.52%. Ho Chi Minh City's largest minority ethnic group are the Chinese (Hoa) with 5.78%. Cholon – in District 5 and parts of Districts 6, 10 and 11 – is home to the largest Chinese community in Vietnam. The Hoa (Chinese) speak a number of varieties of Chinese, including Cantonese, Teochew (Chaozhou), Hokkien, Hainanese and Hakka; smaller numbers also speak Mandarin Chinese. Other ethnic minorities include Khmer with 0.34%, and Cham with 0.1%. Also, various other nationalities including Koreans, Japanese, Americans, South Africans, Filipinos and Britons reside in Ho Chi Minh City, particularly in Thủ Đức and District 7 as expatriate workers. [78]


The three most prevalent religions in Ho Chi Minh City are Mahayana Buddhism with Taoism and Confucianism (via ancestor worship), which are often celebrated together in the same temple. Most Vietnamese and Han Chinese are strongly influenced by these traditional religious practices. There is a sizeable community of Roman Catholics, representing about 10% of the city's population.[79] Other minority groups include Hòa Hảo, Cao Đài, Protestants, Muslims, Hindus, and members of the Baháʼí Faith.

Ho Chi Minh City Demographics articles: 26


Ho Chi Minh City is the economic center of Vietnam and accounts for a large proportion of the economy of Vietnam. Although the city takes up just 0.6% of the country's land area, it contains 8.34% of the population of Vietnam, 20.2% of its GDP, 27.9% of industrial output and 34.9% of the FDI projects in the country in 2005.[80] In 2005, the city had 4,344,000 labourers, of whom 130,000 are over the labour age norm (in Vietnam, 60 for male and 55 for female workers).[81] In 2009, GDP per capita reached $2,800, compared to the country's average level of $1,042.[82]

Year General description
2006 As of June 2006, the city has been home to three export processing zones and twelve industrial parks. Ho Chi Minh City is the leading recipient of foreign direct investment in Vietnam, with 2,530 FDI projects worth $16.6 billion at the end of 2007.[83] In 2007, the city received over 400 FDI projects worth $3 billion.[84]
2007 In 2007, the city's GDP was estimated at $14.3 billion, or about $2,180 per capita, up 12.6 percent from 2006 and accounting for 20% of the country's GDP. The GDP adjusted to Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) reached $71.5 billion, or about $10,870 per capita (approximately three times higher than the country's average). The city's Industrial Product Value was $6.4 billion, equivalent to 30% of the value of the entire nation. Export – Import Turnover through HCMC ports accounted for $36 billion, or 40% of the national total, of which export revenue reached $18.3 billion (40% of Vietnam's total export revenues). In 2007, Ho Chi Minh City's contribution to the annual revenues in the national budget increased by 30 percent, accounting for about 20.5 percent of total revenues. The consumption demand of Ho Chi Minh City is higher than other Vietnamese provinces and municipalities and 1.5 times higher than that of Hanoi.[85]
2008 In 2008, it attracted $8.5 billion in FDI.[86] In 2010, the city's GDP was estimated at $20.902 billion, or about $2,800 per capita, up 11.8 percent from 2009.[87]
2012 By the end of 2012, the city's GDP was estimated around $28,595 billion, or about $3,700 per capita, up 9.2 percent from 2011.[88] Total trade (export and import) reached $47.7 billion, with export at $21.57 billion and import $26.14 billion.[73]
2013 In 2013, GDP of the city grew 7.6% by Q1, 8.1% by Q2, and 10.3% by the end of Q3. By the end of 2013, the city's GDP grew 9.3%, with GDP per capita reaching $4,500.[89]
2014 By the end of 2014, the city's GDP grew 9.5%, with GDP per capita reaching $5,100.[90]


The economy of Ho Chi Minh City consists of industries ranging from mining, seafood processing, agriculture, and construction, to tourism, finance, industry and trade. The state-owned sector makes up 33.3% of the economy, the private sector 4.6%, and the remainder in foreign investment. Concerning its economic structure, the service sector accounts for 51.1%, industry and construction account for 47.7% and forestry, agriculture and others make up just 1.2%.[91]

The city and its ports are part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe.[92][93]

Quang Trung Software Park is a software park situated in District 12. The park is approximately 15 km (9 mi) from downtown Ho Chi Minh City and hosts software enterprises as well as dot.com companies. The park also includes a software training school. Dot.com investors here are supplied with other facilities and services such as residences and high-speed access to the internet as well as favourable taxation. Together with the Hi-Tech Park in Thủ Đức, and the 32 ha. software park inside Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone in District 7 of the city, Ho Chi Minh City aims to become an important hi-tech city in the country and the South-East Asia region.

This park helps the city in particular and Vietnam in general to become an outsourcing location for other enterprises in developed countries, as India has done. Some 300,000 businesses, including many large enterprises, are involved in high-tech, electronic, processing and light industries, and also in construction, building materials and agricultural products. Additionally, crude oil is a popular economic base in the city. Investors are still pouring money into the city. Total local private investment was 160 billion đồng (US$7.5 million)[94] with 18,500 newly founded companies. Investment trends to high technology, services and real estate projects.

As of June 2006, the city had three export processing zones and twelve industrial parks, in addition to Quang Trung Software Park and Ho Chi Minh City hi-tech park. Intel has invested about 1 billion dollars in a factory in the city. More than fifty banks with hundreds of branches and about 20 insurance companies are also located inside the city. The Stock Exchange, the first stock exchange in Vietnam, was opened in 2001. There are 171 medium and large-scale markets as well as several supermarket chains, shopping malls, and fashion and beauty centres.


Some of the larger shopping malls and plazas opened recently include:

  • Maximark – Multiple locations (District 10, and Tan Binh District)
  • Satramart – 460 3/2 Street, Ward 12, District 10
  • Auchan (2016) – Multiple locations (District 10, and Go Vap District)
  • Lotte Mart – Multiple locations (District 7, District 11, and Tan Binh District)
  • AEON Mall – Multiple locations (Binh Tan District, and Tan Phu District)
  • SC VivoCity (2015) – 1058 Nguyen Van Linh Boulevard, Tan Phong Ward, District 7
  • Zen Plaza (1995) – 54–56 Nguyễn Trãi St, District 1
  • Saigon Centre (1997) – 65 Lê Lợi Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Diamond Plaza (1999) – 34 Le Duan Blvd, District 1
  • Big C (2002) – Multiple locations (District 10, Binh Tan District, Go Vap District, Phu Nhuan District, and Tan Phu District)
  • METRO Cash & Carry/Mega Market – Multiple locations (District 2, District 6, and District 12)
  • Crescent Mall – Phu My Hung, District 7
  • Parkson (2005–2009) – Multiple locations (District 1, District 2, District 5, District 7, District 11, and Tan Binh District)
  • Saigon Paragon (2009) – 3 Nguyễn Lương Bằng St, Tan Phu Ward, District 7
  • NowZone (2009) – 235 Nguyen Van Cu Ave, Nguyen Cu Trinh Ward, District 1
  • Kumho Asiana Plaza (2010) – 39 Le Duan Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Vincom Centre (2010) – 70–72 Lê Thánh Tôn St, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Union Square – 171 Lê Thánh Tôn st, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Vincom Mega Mall (2016) – Số 161 Xa Lộ Hà Nội, P. Thảo Điền, District. 2
  • Bitexco Financial Tower (2010) Hẻm số 2 Hàm Nghi Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Co.opmart – Multiple locations (District 1, District 3, District 5, District 6, District 7, District 8, District 10, District 11, District 12, Binh Chanh District, Binh Tan District, Binh Thanh District, Cu Chi District, Go Vap District, Hoc Mon District, Phu Nhuan District, Tan Phu District, and Thu Duc District)
  • Landmark 81 (2018) – 208 Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, Binh Thanh District
  • VinMart – Multiple locations (District 1, District 2, District 7, District 9, District 10, Binh Chanh District, Binh Thanh District, Go Vap District, Tan Binh District, and Thu Duc District)

In 2007, three million foreign tourists, about 70% of the total number of tourists to Vietnam, visited the city. Total cargo transport to Ho Chi Minh City's ports reached 50.5 million metric tonnes,[95] nearly one-third of the total for Vietnam.

New urban areas

With a population now of 8,382,287 (as of Census 2010 on 1 April 2010)[96] (registered residents plus migrant workers as well as a metropolitan population of 10 million), Ho Chi Minh City needs increased public infrastructure.[62] To this end, the city and central governments have embarked on an effort to develop new urban centres. The two most prominent projects are the Thu Thiem city centre in District 2 and the Phu My Hung Urban Area, a new city centre in District 7 (as part of the Saigon South project) where various international schools such as Saigon South International School and Australia's Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology are located. In December 2007, Phu My Hung's new City Centre completed the 17.8 km 10–14 lane wide Nguyen Van Linh Boulevard linking the Saigon port areas, Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone to the National Highway 1 and the Mekong Delta area. In November 2008, a brand new trade centre, Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre, also opened its doors. Other projects include Grandview, Waterfront, Sky Garden, Riverside and Phu Gia 99. Phu My Hung's new City Center received the first Model New City Award from the Vietnamese Ministry of Construction.

Ho Chi Minh City Economy articles: 32