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Gelati Monastery

Monastery in Georgia, Caucasus

Gelati Monastery
გელათის მონასტერი
The monastic complex of Gelati
Religion
AffiliationGeorgian Orthodox Church
Location
LocationKutaisi, Imereti, Georgia
Shown within Imereti
Gelati Monastery (Georgia)
Geographic coordinates42°17′40″N 42°46′03″E / 42.2945472°N 42.7675583°E / 42.2945472; 42.7675583Coordinates: 42°17′40″N 42°46′03″E / 42.2945472°N 42.7675583°E / 42.2945472; 42.7675583
Architecture
TypeMonastery
StyleGeorgian
FounderDavid IV of Georgia ("David the Builder")
CompletedChurch of the Virgin, 1106;
Churches of St. George and St. Nicholas, 13th century
Official name: Gelati Monastery
TypeCultural
Criteriaiv
Designated1994 (18th session)
Reference no.710
RegionEurope and North America[1]

Gelati (Georgian: გელათის მონასტერი) is a medieval monastic complex near Kutaisi in the Imereti region of western Georgia. One of the first monasteries in Georgia,[2] it was founded in 1106 by King David IV of Georgia as a monastic and educational center, and is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.[3]

The monastery is an exemplar of the Georgian Golden Age and a gold aesthetic is employed in the paintings and buildings.[4] It was built to celebrate Orthodox Christian faith in Georgia.[5] Some murals found inside the Gelati Monastery church date back as early as the 12th century.[6]

Overview

Historically, Gelati was a cultural and intellectual center in Georgia. It had an Academy that employed Georgian scientists, theologians and philosophers, many of whom had previously been active at various Orthodox monasteries abroad, such as the Mangana Monastery in Constantinople.[7] Among its notable scholars were Ioane Petritsi, who translated several classics of philosophy but is best known for his commentaries on Proclus; and Arsen Ikaltoeli, known for his Dogmatikon, or book of teachings, influenced by Aristotle. The Gelati Academy employed scribes to compile manuscript copies of important works,[8] and people of the time called it "a new Hellas" and "a second Athos".[9]

One of the most valuable manuscripts, mural or icon was the Khakhuli triptych, which was enshrined in the Gelati Monastery until being stolen in 1859. Although returned in 1923, it was in a reduced condition.[10] The Monastery also acts as the burial site for its founder David IV of Georgia, near which the Ancient Gates of Ganja, which were taken by King Demetrius I of Georgia in 1138, can be found.

Landscape

The monastery is located on a hill several kilometres to the northeast of Kutaisi. It also overlooks the Tskaltsitela Gorge.

History

The Gelati Monastery was built in 1106 by King David IV of Georgia, at which time Kutaisi was the capital of Georgia.[8] It was constructed during the reign of the Byzantine Empire; in this period Christianity was the ruling religion throughout the empire. The monastery's main church, known as Church of Virgin the Blessed was dedicated to Virgin Mary. The monastery was also constructed to function as an academy of science and education in Georgia.[8]

Today

The monastery is still active and its churches continue to be regularly used for religious service. Under the supervision of UNESCO the site is being continually restored and protected. All the original structures of the monastery are intact and functional.

The mosaics and murals were damaged prior to UNESCO conservation,[11] but halted when the roof of the academy building was replaced by Georgian conservators.[8] By presidential decree, the monastery was added to the National Register of Monuments for protection and restoration in 2006.

Triptychs

Triptychs were popular during the Byzantine Empire and important in Georgian culture.[12] The triptychs represented another form of contribution to the church. Triptychs were a form of iconography for the congregation.

Mosaics

The interiors of the monastery hold mosaics in classic Byzantine style illustrating aspects of Christian belief. The largest, a 12th-century masterpiece depicting the Virgin Mary holding the baby Jesus, dominates the apse of the main church, and is an artwork of cultural importance in Georgia.[13] Above the altar is situated a statue of the Virgin Mary, looking down at the baby Jesus she is holding.

Architecture

The Gelati monastery is constructed of solid stone, with full archways. The plan of the main monastery was designed in the shape of a cross, the symbol of Jesus's crucifixion and of Christianity.[14] The monastery was designed to be visible over much of the country, with its stone walls constructed to reflect sunlight. There are archways throughout the monastery, including the bell tower.

Burials

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Europe and North America, UNESCO, 2021
  2. ^ Kaufhold, Hubert (2011). "Gelati Monastery". Religion Past and Present. doi:10.1163/1877-5888_rpp_SIM_08287.
  3. ^ https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/710/
  4. ^ Centre, U.W.H. (n.d.). Gelati Monastery, Georgia, removed from UNESCO’s List of World Heritage in Danger. [online] UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1692
  5. ^ Calma, Dragos (2020). Reading Proclus and the Book of Causes, Volume 2. Dublin: University College Dublin.
  6. ^ "World Heritage Site". 1997–2020.
  7. ^ Reinis Fischer. (2015). Gelati Monastery in Georgia. [online] Available at: https://www.reinisfischer.com/gelati-monastery-georgia
  8. ^ a b c d "Gelati Monastery". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  9. ^ Chatzidakis, Nano. Byzantine Mosaics, Volume 7. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon, 1994, p.22
  10. ^ Eastmond, Antony (2001), Eastern approaches to Byzantium: papers from the Thirty-third Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, University of Warwick, Coventry, March 1999, pp. 216-217. Ashgate/Variorum, ISBN 0-7546-0322-9, ISBN 978-0-7546-0322-1
  11. ^ Riggs, Thomas (2015). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. 2nd ed., vol. 2: Countries, Afghanistan to Ghana. Farmington Hills: Gale.
  12. ^ Dzhindzhikhashvili, Zoia (1996). ncyclopedia of World Cultures, vol. 6: Russia and Eurasia/China. NY: Macmillan Reference USA.
  13. ^ Most, W.G (2003). "Canon, Biblical". New Catholic Encyclopedia. 3: 20–34.
  14. ^ McClymond, Michael (2015). "Christianity". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. 1: 119–168.

External links

Adapted from the Wikinfo article Gelati Monastery by Levan Urushadze, licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

  • Byzantine Art, www.bourgogneromane.com/Byzantine.htm.
  • Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. “Gelati Monastery.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre, whc.unesco.org/en/list/710.
  • Chichinadze, Nina. “Some Compositional Characteristics of Georgian Triptychs of the Thirteenth through Fifteenth Centuries.” Gesta, vol. 35, no. 1, 1996, pp. 66–76. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/767227.
  • Derlemenko I︠E︡vhen Anatoliĭovych, and Gigilashvili Ėduard. Gelati : Arkhitektura, Mozaika, Freski (Fotoalʹbom]= Gelati : Architecture, Mosaic, Frescoes. Tbilisi, Khelovneba, 1982.
  • Hubert Kaufhold, Brill. Georgian Monasteries.
  • Mepʻisašvili, R. Gelati. "Sabčotʻa Sakʻartʻvelo", 1965.