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First Hellenic Republic

Former country

Top 8 First Hellenic Republic related articles

Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)

  • Προσωρινὴ Διοίκησις τῆς Ἑλλάδος
  • Ἑλληνικὴ Πολιτεία
1822–1832
Motto: "Eleftheria i thanatos"
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
"Freedom or Death"
Status
CapitalNafplio
Common languagesGreek
Religion
Greek Orthodox
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
President of the Executive 
• 1822–1823 (first)
Alexandros Mavrokordatos
• 1826–1827 (last)
Andreas Zaimis
Governor 
• 1827–1831
Ioannis Kapodistrias
• 1831–1832
Augustinos Kapodistrias
LegislatureNational Assembly
History 
• Start of Greek Revolution
January 1 1822
March 22, 1829
February 3, 1830
August 8 1832
August 30, 1832
CurrencyPhoenix
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Morea Eyalet
Kingdom of Greece
Principality of Samos
Today part of  Greece

The First Hellenic Republic (Greek: Αʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) was the provisional Greek state during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.[1][2] From 1822 until 1827, it was known as the Provisional Administration of Greece, and between 1827 and 1832, it was known as the Hellenic State.

"First Hellenic Republic" is a historiographical term. It is used by academics and the Greek government to emphasize the constitutional and democratic nature of the revolutionary regime prior to the establishment of the independent Kingdom of Greece, and associate this period of Greek history with the later Second and Third Republics.[3][4]

History

In the first stages of the 1821 uprising, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by a central administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus in early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution, marking the birth of the modern Greek state. The councils continued in existence, however, and central authority was not firmly established until 1824/1825. The new state was not recognized by the Great Powers of the day, which, after initial successes, was threatened with collapse both from within due to civil war and from without through the victories of the Turco-Egyptian army of Ibrahim Pasha.[1]

By 1827 the Greek revolution had almost been extinguished on the mainland, but by this time the Great Powers had come to agree to the formation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, as stipulated in the Treaty of London. Ottoman refusal to accept these terms led to the Battle of Navarino, which effectively secured complete Greek independence.

In 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen established the Hellenic State (Ἑλληνικὴ Πολιτεία) and selected Count Ioannis Kapodistrias as Governor of Greece. Therefore, this period is often called Governorate (Greek: Κυβερνείο). After his arrival in Greece in January 1828, Kapodistrias actively tried to create a functional state and redress the problems of a war-ravaged country, but was soon embroiled in conflict with powerful local magnates and chieftains.[2]

Ioannis Kapodistrias, Governor of Greece

Kapodistrias was assassinated by political rivals in 1831, plunging the country into renewed civil strife. He was succeeded by his brother Augustinos, who was forced to resign after six months. The Fifth National Assembly at Nafplion drafted a new royal constitution, while the three "Protecting Powers" (Great Britain, France and Russia) intervened, declaring Greece a Kingdom in the London Conference of 1832, with the Bavarian Prince Otto of Wittelsbach as king.

First Hellenic Republic History articles: 16

Heads of the Executive

The following were the heads of government for the First Hellenic Republic:[5]

Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)

Head of State Term of office Title
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
13 January 1822 10 May 1823 1 year, 117 days President of the Executive
2 Petros Mavromichalis
Πέτρος Μαυρομιχάλης (Πετρόμπεης)
(1765–1848)
10 May 1823 31 December 1823 235 days President of the Executive
3 Georgios Kountouriotis
Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης
(1782–1858)
31 December 1823 26 April 1826 2 years, 116 days President of the Executive
4 Andreas Zaimis
Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης
(1791–1840)
26 April 1826 14 April 1827 353 days President of the Government Commission

Hellenic State (1827–1832)

Governor Term of office Political party
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας
(1776–1831)
14 April 1827 9 October 1831
(Assassinated)
4 years, 178 days Russian Party
2 Augustinos Kapodistrias
Αυγουστίνος Καποδίστριας
(1778–1857)
9 October 1831 23 March 1832
(Resigned)
166 days Russian Party

First Hellenic Republic Heads of the Executive articles: 6

See also

References

Coordinates: 37°34′13″N 22°48′21″E / 37.5702°N 22.8057°E / 37.5702; 22.8057