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East Java

Province of Indonesia, on island of Java

Top 10 East Java related articles

Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750

East Java

Jawa Timur
Flag
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
ꦗꦼꦂꦧꦱꦸꦏꦶꦩꦮꦧꦺꦪ
Jêr Basuki Mawa Béya (Javanese)
Success Requires a Sacrifice
Location of East Java in Indonesia
Established25 February 1950
Capital
and largest city
Surabaya
Government
 • BodyEast Java Provincial Government
 • GovernorKhofifah Indar Parawansa
 • Vice GovernorEmil Dardak
Area
 • Total47,799.75 km2 (18,455.59 sq mi)
Area rank14th in Indonesia
Highest elevation
3,676 m (12,060 ft)
Population
 (mid 2019)[1][2]
 • Total39,744,800
 • Rank2nd in Indonesia
 • Density830/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups71% Javanese
29% Madurese
3% Chinese[3]
 • Religion in Indonesia94.35% Islam
4.19% Christianity
0.93% Hinduism
0.49% Buddhism
0.02% Confucianism
0.04% other (including Kejawen)[4]
 • Languages of IndonesiaIndonesian (official)
Javanese (regional)
Madurese (regional)
Osing, Tenggerese
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
ISO 3166 codeID-JI
HDI 0.715 (High)
HDI rank15th in Indonesia (2019)
GRP Nominal $166.37 billion[5]
GDP PPP (2019) $546.80 billion[5]
GDP rank2nd in Indonesia (2019)
Nominal per capitaUS$4,191 (2019)[5]
PPP per capitaUS$13,775 (2019)[5]
Per capita rank8th in Indonesia (2019)
Websitejatimprov.go.id

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west; the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean border its northern and southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow Bali Strait to the east separates Java from Bali. Located in eastern Java, it also includes the island of Madura, which is connected to Java by the longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge, as well as the Kangean islands located further east (in the northern Bali Sea) and Masalembu archipelagos in the north. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, a major industrial center and also a major business center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East Java and the largest on the island of Java.[6]

The province covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java, making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province; the latest official estimate (for mid 2019) is 39,744,800.[7] East Java is inhabited by many different ethnic groups, such as the Javanese, Madurese and Chinese. Most of the people in East Java adheres to Islam, forming around 94% of the total population. Other religions are also exist, such as Christianity, Buddhism and Confusianism which are mostly practised by Tionghua people and immigrants from Eastern Indonesia and North Sumatra, and also Hinduism which are practised by the Tenggerese people in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park and the Balinese people inhabiting the easternmost part of the province bordering Bali.

The Indonesian language is the official language of the province as well as the whole nation, but Javanese and Madurese are the most frequently used language, especially the Surabaya dialect (Javanese: Suroboyoan or Surabayaan — the Javanese dialect of Surabaya) used mainly in the capital Surabaya. Indonesian is only used for inter-ethnic communication and official purposes.

East Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia that offers different types of tourist attractions. This area offers a variety of natural attractions ranging from mountains, beaches, caves, to waterfalls. In general, almost every regencies or city in East Java has its own unique tourist destinations, such as the Ijen volcano in Banyuwangi, Baluran National Park in Situbondo, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, etc.

East Java Intro articles: 48

History

Prehistory

East Java has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times. This can be proven by the discovery of remains from fossils of Pithecanthropus mojokertensis in Kepuhlagen, Mojokerto;[8] Pithecanthropus erectus on Trinil, Ngawi;[9] and Homo wajakensis in Wajak, Tulungagung.[10]

Pre-Islamic era

Statues of Singhasari temple, circa 1910s

The Dinoyo inscriptions found near the city of Malang are the oldest written sources in East Java, dating from 760 CE. They tell of many political and cultural events in the Kingdom of Kanjuruhan. The name of Malang is thought to come from the name of a sacred building called Malangkuseswara. This name is contained in at least one inscription, namely, the Mantyasih inscription written in 907 CE.

In 1222, Ken Arok founded the Kingdom of Singhasari, which he ruled until 1292. Before coming to power, Ken Arok seized power in Tumapel (Kediri) from Tungul Ametung. Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit from the 13th until the 15th century.

In 1227, Anusapati killed Ken Arok, and later became king of Singasari. Anusapati's power only lasted 20 years, before he was killed by Tohjaya. Three years later, Tohjaya was killed in the uprising led by Jaya Wisnuwardhana, son of Anusapati. In 1268, Wisnuwardhana died, and he was succeeded by Kertanegara (1268–1292). In 1292 Kertanegara was defeated by a rebel named Jayakatwang, ending the power of Kertanegara and the history of Singhasari.

In 1293, Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty, sent a large invasion fleet to Java with 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers, beginning the Mongol invasion of Java.[11] This was a punitive expedition against King Kertanegara of Singhasari, who had refused to pay tribute to the Yuan and maimed one of its ministers. However, it ended with failure for the Mongols.

In 1294, the Kingdom of Majapahit was founded. Its founder was Raden Wijaya. Majapahit reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk. He was accompanied by the mahapatih Gajah Mada. Together they managed to unite the vast territory under the name Dwipantara. Majaphit later developed to become one of the strongest empire in Southeast Asia.

In 1357, the Bubat event occurred, the war between the King of Sunda and the Majapahit Patih Gajah Mada. This event stems from the desire to take the king Hayam Wuruk Sundanese princess named Dyah Pitaloka as queen. However, because of a misunderstanding about the procedure of marriage, the plan led to a battle in Bubat. Majapahit troops, under the command of Gajah Mada defeated Pajajaran. In 1389, Hayam Wuruk died, and was succeeded by Wikramawardhana. This resulted in the beginning of the decline of the Majapahit Empire. As the Majapahit Empire went into decline in the late 1300s, Islam moved to fill the vacuum.[12]

Islamic era

The Ampel Mosque in Surabaya, the oldest surviving mosque in Java and second oldest in Indonesia, was built in 1421.

The precise date when Islam enters Java remains unclear. This is due to the absence of a definite source regarding the arrival of Islam in Java. However, according to some experts, it is estimated that Islam entered Java around the 11th century, with evidence of the tomb of Fatimah Binti Maimun in the village of Leran in Gresik Regency which dates from 475 AH (1085 AD). The tomb also shows that in the 11th century, the North coast of Java had begun to be frequented by Arab traders from the Middle East. In addition, several Islamic tombs were discovered in Trowulan, located in what is now part of the Mojokerto Regency, near the site of the former Majapahit palace.[13]

In the 15th century, a Chinese Hui voyager named Ma Huan (simplified Chinese: 马欢; traditional Chinese: 馬歡; pinyin: Mǎ Huān) visited East Java. He then wrote the book Yingya Shenglan (simplified Chinese: 瀛涯胜览; traditional Chinese: 瀛涯勝覽; pinyin: yíngyá shènglǎn), which tells the story of the countries visited by him over the course of the Ming treasure voyages. He mentioned that at that time, there were three different kind of people inhabiting Eastern Java: Arabs from the Middle-East, the ancestor of the modern Arab Indonesians; Chinese Muslims originating from modern-day Guangdong province, and the native Javanese people.[14]

By the 16th century, the Majapahit Empire was defeated by the Islamic kingdoms in Java, resulting in the exile of many Majaphit aristocrats to the neighbouring island of Bali.[15] Those who remained in Java are forced to convert to Islam, while a small pocket of isolated people living in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park spread around Pasuruan, Probolinggo, Malang, and Lumajang Regencies remains adhered to Hinduism to this day. They are known as the Tenggerese people. Their population of roughly 100,000 is centered in 30 villages in the isolated Tengger mountains.[16]

When the Islamic sultanates started ruling Java, cities in the northern coast started developing to become a thriving port. One of them is the town of Tuban, which was a wealthy and important port with many Chinese settlers. Being the port of Majapahit and the point of departure for the Moluccas, it exported an abundant supply of foodstuffs and imported a rich variety of products from the Moluccas.[17] At the end of the 16th century, the development of Islam had surpassed Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion in Java. The emergence of the Islamic kingdom on Java is also inseparable from the role of Walisongo. At first, the spread of Islam was very rapid and was accepted by ordinary people, until finally the da'wah entered and was carried out by the rulers of this island.

European colonization

The relationship between the Javanese and European colonial powers began in 1522, with the signing of a treaty between the Sunda Kingdom and the Portuguese Empire in Malacca. After the failure of the treaty, the Portuguese presence was then limited to Malacca in the Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands. An expedition under the leadership of the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman consisting of four ships in 1596 became the beginning of Dutch presence in the island.[18] At the end of the 18th century, the Dutch had succeeded in expanding their influence on the Islamic sultanates in the interior of the island of Java.

At the onset of the Napoleonic Wars, the British conquered Java in 1811. Java later briefly became part of the British Empire, with Sir Stamford Raffles as its Governor-General. In 1814, Britain returned Java to the Netherlands as stipulated in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.[19]

Japanese occupation and revolution

Operation Transom, destroyed Tanjung Perak in 1944.

During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, there was persistent resistance against the Japanese rule. In Blitar, an uprising by PETA (Defenders of the Homeland) led by Supriyadi, Moeradi, Halir Mangkudijoyo, and Soemarto occurred in early 1945, but it was crushed by the Japanese.

Two weeks after the proclamation of independence, Surabaya established its own government in the shape of a resident, R. Sudirman. The formation of government in Surabaya caused disputes between the republican forces and Japanese troops, resulting in various skirmishes across the city. This was because when the Japanese surrendered, they were obliged to remain in power until the allied forces arrived. The arrival of Allied forces in Surabaya created tensions with the newly established government of Indonesia, reaching peak on 10 November 1945 where a major battle between the Surabayan residents led by Sutomo and Allied forces.

The battle forced the governor, Suryo, on the advice of People's Security Army (TKR), to move the seat of the government to the Mojokerto area. A week later, the government retreated again to a more secure location in Kediri. However, security situation Kediri worsen until finally, in February 1947, the East Java provincial government fled to Malang. While the administration was based in Malang, Gobvernor Suryo was replaced by R.P. Suroso, who was in turn replaced again by Dr. Moerdjani. On 21 July 1947, although still bound by the Linggadjati Agreement and a ceasefire agreement in effect since 14 October 1946, the Dutch commenced a military action, Operation Product, which led to deteriorating security conditions in Malang. The East Java provincial government finally moved again to Blitar.

This military action ended after the Renville Agreement. However, this agreement had negative consequences for East Java, namely, a reduction in the territory controlled by the East Java provincial government. The Netherlands then turned the areas under its control into new states, such as the State of Madura and the State of East Java. Amid the difficulties faced by the government of Indonesia, a left-wing opposition group, Front Demokrasi Rakyat (FDR, People's Democratic Front) launched rebellion in Madiun on 18 September 1948, which is known as the Madiun Affair. However, eventually this revolt was defeated by the Indonesian Army. On 19 December 1948, the Dutch launched Operation Kraai. Blitar, which the seat of the East Java provincial government was attacked by the Dutch. Governor Dr. Moerdjani and his staff were forced to flee and joined the guerrillas on the slopes of Mount Willis. Operation Kraai ended after the Roem–Van Roijen Agreement on 7 May 1949.

Following the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference, at which the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia, the Dutch withdrew its troops from East Java. East Java changed its status from a province into a state. However, on 25 February 1950, this was dissolved and became part of the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. The State of Madura also decided to join Indonesia.

Contemporary era

Along with rapid growth of urbanization in East Java, the governments could not satisfy the population's needs for affordable housing, which led to the building of shanty towns along the rivers and rail tracks. Today, the shanty towns still exist; although some have been transformed into “better” housing.[20]

East Java has twice hosted the National Sports Week (PON), namely PON VII in 1969, and PON XV in 2000, and became the overall champion of PON in 2000, and 2008. Since 1996 the East Java Football Team has always won medals gold was included in 2008, and was recorded as the fourth gold medal received consecutively. In 2021, East Java also hosted the 4th Asian Youth Games.

East Java History articles: 75

Geography

Eastern Salient of Java mountain range view from Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park at early morning

East Java province borders the Java Sea in the north, the Strait of Bali in the east, the Indian Ocean in the south, as well as the Central Java province in the west. The length of the east–west stretch of about 400 km. The width of the stretch of the north–south in the west about 200 km, but in the eastern part of narrower by about 60 km. Madura is the largest island in East Java, separated from the mainland Java by the Strait of Madura. Bawean Island is located about 150 km north of Java. In the east of Madura there are a cluster of islands, the easternmost is Kangean Island and the northernmost is Masalembu Islands. In the southern part there are two small islands namely Nusa Barong and Sempu Island.

Geology

In physiographic of geology, East Java Province can be grouped into three zones: the southern zone (plato), the middle zone (volcanic), and the northern zone (folds). Lowlands and highlands in the middle (of Ngawi, Blitar, Malang, to Bondowoso) has a fairly fertile soil. In the northern part ( Bojonegoro, Tuban, Gresik, to Madura Island) lies the Kapur Utara mountains and the Kendeng mountains which are relatively barren.

In the middle of the province stretch mountain ranges and volcanoes: On the border with Central Java is Mount Lawu (3,265 metres). Southeast from Madiun is Mount Wilis (2,169 metres), and Mount Liman (2,563 metres). In the middle of the corridor lies the Anjasmoro mountains with peaks Mount Arjuno (3,339 metres), Mount Welirang (3,156 metres), Mount Anjasmoro (2,277 metres), Mount Kawi (2,551 metres), and Mount Kelud (1,731 metres); The mountains are located in most Kediri, Blitar, Malang, Pasuruan, Mojokerto and Jombang. The group has the peak of Mount Bromo Tengger (2,329 metres), and Mount Semeru (3,676 metres). Mount Semeru, which is also called Mahameru is the highest mountain in the island of Java. In the easternmost part if the province, there are two groups of mountains: the Iyang mountains with the peak Mount Argopuro (3,088 metres), the Ijen mountains with the peak Mount Raung (3344 metres) In the south there is a series of hills, that of the south coast of Pacitan, Trenggalek, Tulungagung, Blitar, Malang. the Kapur Selatan mountains is a continuation of a series of the Sewu mountains in Yogyakarta.

Water

Light snow and frost is common at East Java highlands over 1500 meters above sea level in middle of year during late night until morning.

Two of the most important rivers in East Java is the Brantas River (290 kilometres), and the Solo River (548 kilometers). Brantas River has headwaters on the slopes Mount Arjuno near Batu, and flows through most areas in East Java, like Malang, Blitar, Tulungagung, Kediri, Jombang and Mojokerto. In Mojokerto, Brantas River split into two: Kali Mas, and Porong; both empties into the Madura Strait. Solo River has headwaters on the slopes of Mount Lawu which lies on the border of East Java and Central Java, and flows through a portion of the eastern part of Central Java and East Java, which eventually empties in Gresik. Brantas River and Bengawan Solo are managed by Perum Jasa Tirta I. On the slopes of Mount Lawu near the border with Central Java are Sarangan, a natural lake. The main dam in East Java, among others Ir. Sutami and Selorejo Dam, which is used for irrigation, fish farming and tourism.

Climate

East Java has a tropical monsoon and savanna climate at lower elevation and subtropical at higher elevation. Compared with the western part of Java Island, East Java in general has less rainfall. Average rainfall is 1,900 mm per year, with a rainy season during the 100 days. The average temperature ranges between 19-34 °C. Temperatures in the lower mountain areas, and even in areas Ranu Pani (slopes of Mount Semeru), temperatures can reach minus 4 °C, causing a frost and fall of light snow.[21]

Climate data for Surabaya, elevation: 5 m or 16 ft, extremes 1963–1980
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.3
(91.9)
34.4
(93.9)
33.9
(93.0)
33.3
(91.9)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
34.4
(93.9)
33.9
(93.0)
35
(95)
35.6
(96.1)
35
(95)
35.6
(96.1)
Average high °C (°F) 31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
31.6
(88.9)
31.4
(88.5)
31.6
(88.9)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
30.1
(86.2)
32.7
(90.9)
33.4
(92.1)
33.1
(91.6)
31.9
(89.4)
31.8
(89.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
26.8
(80.2)
27
(81)
27.3
(81.1)
27.3
(81.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.2
(79.2)
26.5
(79.7)
27.2
(81.0)
28.2
(82.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.9)
Average low °C (°F) 24.1
(75.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.0
(75.2)
24.8
(76.6)
24.1
(75.4)
23.5
(74.3)
23.0
(73.4)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.7
(74.7)
24.1
(75.4)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
Record low °C (°F) 21.1
(70.0)
21.1
(70.0)
20.6
(69.1)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
15.6
(60.1)
14.4
(57.9)
16.1
(61.0)
16.7
(62.1)
17.8
(64.0)
19.4
(66.9)
20
(68)
14.4
(57.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 327
(12.9)
275
(10.8)
283
(11.1)
181
(7.1)
159
(6.3)
101
(4.0)
22
(0.9)
15
(0.6)
17
(0.7)
47
(1.9)
105
(4.1)
219
(8.6)
1,751
(69)
Average rainy days 17 18 19 15 13 11 7 3 4 5 12 23 147
Average relative humidity (%) 66.61 69.1 66.3 67.23 64.87 60.27 60.84 57.87 54.53 56.06 56.13 63.03 61.90
Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.6 123.6 143.2 155.8 188.9 199.3 223.8 245.5 228.8 221.0 182.6 138.1 2,191.2
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization;[22] Climate-Data.org (daily mean);[23] and Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System (record extreme temperature)[24][25]
Source 2: WeatherOnline (2000–2019 sunshine data)[26]
Climate data for Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Kota Batu (elevation 1,200 m or 3,900 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.7
(69.3)
21
(70)
21.8
(71.2)
22.2
(72.0)
21.8
(71.2)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
16.9
(62.4)
16.1
(61.0)
16.2
(61.2)
16.9
(62.4)
17.6
(63.7)
17.9
(64.2)
17.6
(63.7)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
13.9
(57.0)
14.1
(57.4)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.8)
12.6
(54.7)
11.5
(52.7)
11.4
(52.5)
12
(54)
13.1
(55.6)
14
(57)
13.8
(56.8)
13.1
(55.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 406
(16.0)
353
(13.9)
395
(15.6)
242
(9.5)
176
(6.9)
81
(3.2)
52
(2.0)
35
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
130
(5.1)
282
(11.1)
385
(15.2)
2,583
(101.7)
Average relative humidity (%) 81.7 82.3 82.2 79.2 79.8 77.3 75.1 72.9 70.9 70.9 74.4 79.1 77.1
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[27]
Source 2: Weatherbase (humidity)[28]
Climate data for Cemoro Lawang, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (elevation 2,217 m or 7,274 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.3
(63.1)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
17
(63)
16.3
(61.3)
16.5
(61.7)
17.1
(62.8)
17.7
(63.9)
17.5
(63.5)
17.3
(63.1)
17.2
(63.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
13.7
(56.7)
13.9
(57.0)
13.5
(56.3)
13.3
(55.9)
12.8
(55.0)
11.8
(53.2)
12
(54)
12.5
(54.5)
13.3
(55.9)
13.9
(57.0)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.7)
Average low °C (°F) 9.9
(49.8)
9.9
(49.8)
10.3
(50.5)
9.7
(49.5)
9.3
(48.7)
8.6
(47.5)
7.4
(45.3)
7.5
(45.5)
8
(46)
9
(48)
10.3
(50.5)
10
(50)
9.2
(48.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 297
(11.7)
334
(13.1)
348
(13.7)
181
(7.1)
104
(4.1)
63
(2.5)
33
(1.3)
15
(0.6)
19
(0.7)
70
(2.8)
145
(5.7)
315
(12.4)
1,924
(75.7)
Source: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[29]

East Java Geography articles: 24

Administrative divisions

East Java is divided into 29 kabupaten (or regencies), and 9 kotamadya (or cities). This list of regencies and cities with their areas and populations at the 2000 and 2010 censuses[30] and at the 2015 Intermediate Census[31] are listed below, grouped geographically into (unofficial) sub-regions entirely for convenience of access. The sub-regions have no official status. These regencies and cities are divided at 2021 into 666 districts (kecamatan) which are in turn composed of 8,501 administrative villages (rural desa and urban kelurahan):

Name Capital Area

(km2)

Population

2000 Census

Population

2010 Census

Population

2015 Census

Number of

districts

Number of

villages

HDI[32] 2014 estimate
Mojokerto City 16.47 108,938 120,196 125,657 3 18 0.750 (High)
Pasuruan City 35.29 168,323 186,262 194,684 4 34 0.732 (High)
Surabaya City 350.54 2,599,796 2,765,487 2,847,480 31 154 0.788 (High)
Gresik Regency (includes Bawean Island) Gresik 1,191.25 1,005,445 1,177,042 1,255,042 18 356 0.728 (High)
Lamongan Regency Lamongan 1,782.05 1,181,660 1,179,059 1,187,742 27 474 0.694 (Medium)
Mojokerto Regency Mojosari 717.83 908,004 1,025,443 1,079,499 18 304 0.702 (High)
Pasuruan Regency Bangil 1,474.02 1,366,605 1,512,468 1,590,807 24 365 0.643 (Medium)
Sidoarjo Regency Sidoarjo 634.38 1,563,015 1,941,497 2,114,493 18 353 0.767 (High)
Surabaya sub-regional totals 6,201.83 8,901,786 9,907,454 10,395,404
Madiun City 33.92 163,956 170,964 174,953 3 27 0.788 (High)
Bojonegoro Regency Bojonegoro 2,198.79 1,165,401 1,209,973 1,236,234 28 430 0.652 (Medium)
Jombang Regency Jombang 1,115.09 1,126,930 1,202,407 1,240,353 21 306 0.690 (Medium)
Madiun Regency Caruban 1,037.58 639,825 662,278 675,988 15 206 0.686 (Medium)
Magetan Regency Magetan 688.84 615,254 620,442 627,330 18 235 0.702 (High)
Nganjuk Regency Nganjuk 1,224.25 973,472 1,017,030 1,041,362 20 284 0.695 (Medium)
Ngawi Regency Ngawi 1,295.98 813,228 817,765 828,678 19 217 0.677 (Medium)
Tuban Regency Tuban 1,834.15 1,051,999 1,118,464 1,152,372 20 328 0.645 (Medium)
Northwest sub-regional totals 9,428.60 6,550,065 6,819,323 6,977,270
Probolinggo City 56.67 191,522 217,062 228,834 5 29 0.704 (High)
Banyuwangi Regency Banyuwangi 5,782.40 1,488,791 1,556,078 1,593,563 25 217 0.673 (Medium)
Bondowoso Regency Bondowoso 1,525.97 688,651 736,772 760,861 23 219 0.634 (Medium)
Jember Regency Jember 3,092.34 2,187,657 2,332,726 2,406,142 31 248 0.626 (Medium)
Lumajang Regency Lumajang 1,790.90 965,192 1,006,458 1,029,837 21 206 0.623 (Medium)
Probolinggo Regency Kraksaan 1,696.21 1,004,967 1,096,244 1,139,810 24 330 0.630 (Medium)
Situbondo Regency Situbondo 1,669.87 603,705 647,619 669,401 17 136 0.639 (Medium)
Tapal Kuda sub-regional totals 15,614.36 7,130,485 7,592,959 7,828,448
Batu City 136.74 (a) 190,184 200,369 3 24 0.718 (High)
Blitar City 32.57 119,372 131,968 137,866 3 21 0.752 (High)
Kediri City 63.40 244,519 268,507 279,901 3 46 0.746 (High)
Malang City 145.28 756,982 820,243 850,904 5 57 0.789 (High)
Blitar Regency Kanigoro 1,336.48 1,064,643 1,116,639 1,145,067 22 248 0.668 (Medium)
Kediri Regency Ngasem 1,386.05 1,408,353 1,499,768 1,546,144 26 344 0.684 (Medium)
Malang Regency Kepanjen 3,530.65 2,412,570 2,446,218 2,542,963 33 390 0.655 (Medium)
Pacitan Regency Pacitan 1,389.92 525,758 540,881 550,891 12 171 0.638 (Medium)
Ponorogo Regency Ponorogo 1,305.70 841,449 855,281 867,247 21 307 0.674 (Medium)
Trenggalek Regency Trenggalek 1,147.22 649,883 674,411 689,027 14 157 0.661 (Medium)
Tulungagung Regency Tulungagung 1,055.65 929,833 990,158 1,020,692 19 271 0.694 (Medium)
Southern sub-regional totals 11,529.66 8,953,362 9,534,258 9,831,071
East Java
(excluding Madura) Totals
42,774.45 31,535,693 33,853,994 35,022,193
Bangkalan Regency Bangkalan 1,001.44 805,048 906,761 953,659 18 281 0.607 (Medium)
Pamekasan Regency Pamekasan 792.24 689,225 795,918 844,550 13 189 0.626 (Medium)
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,233.08 750,046 877,772 935,891 14 186 0.569 (Low)
Sumenep Regency Sumenep 1,998.54 985,981 1,042,312 1,071,768 27 334 0.614 (Medium)
Madura Totals 5,025.30 3,230,300 3,622,763 3,805,868
Total for Province 47,799.75 34,765,993 37,476,757 38,828,061 0.681 (Medium)

Note: (a) the 2000 population of Batu City is included in the total for Malang Regency, from which it was separated in 2001.

East Java Administrative divisions articles: 47

Demography

Historical population
YearPop.±%
197125,516,999—    
198029,188,852+14.4%
199032,503,991+11.4%
199533,844,002+4.1%
200034,783,640+2.8%
201037,476,757+7.7%
201739,293,000+4.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2017[33]

According to the 2000 census, East Java had 34,765,993 people, which increased to 37,476,757 people at the 2010 Census,[34] making it the second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. Akin to Central Java, the region's birth rates are not necessarily any lower than the rest of Java, however due to net population outflows, especially in times of calamity, not limited to volcanic eruptions or droughts, the region has varying rates of population growth that are generally lower than national average. Ethnic Javanese dominate the Java mainland as well as the total population of the province overall, while ethnic Madurese inhabit Madura and the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos, though centuries of migrations have led the Java mainland to have a larger proportion of Madurese people than Madura itself. Minorities include distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of foreign ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs.

Languages

Besides the formal language, Indonesian, East Java people use Javanese as daily language. Javanese as spoken in the western part of East Java (Kulonan) is a similar dialect to the one spoken in Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern part, such as Surabaya, Malang, and others, a more egalitarian version of Javanese is spoken, with less regard of hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity. The dialect is notable for its roughness compared to other dialects spoken elsewhere in Java (especially the Mataram dialect spoken around Surakarta and Yogyakarta, which is renowned for its smoothness) and contributes to the stereotype among Javanese people of East Javanese being "blunt" and "loud".[35] Variants of Javanese are also used by Osing and Tengger minorities, the former utilizing a Balinese-influenced Javanese by virtue of its closeness with Bali island, and the latter speaking an archaic form of the language that retains many features now lost in other more-innovative Javanese dialects.[36] Other than Javanese, minority language includes Madurese, spoken by around 4 million ethnic Madurese people inhabiting Madura and the Kangean and Masalembu Islands. Though they live practically next door with the Javanese, the language is actually more closer genetically to Balinese, Malay, and Sundanese.[37]

Religion

Religion in East Java

  Islam (94.35%)
  Protestantism (3.02%)
  Roman catholic (1.17%)
  Buddhism (0.49%)
  Hinduism (0.93%)
  Confucianism and others (0.02%)

A long time ago, Hinduism and Buddhism dominated the island until Islam gradually supplanted Hinduism in the 14th and 15th century. The last nobles and people of the fallen Majapahit fled to Bali. Islam spread from northern cities in Java where many Muslim traders from Gujarat, India stopped by. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to Banyuwangi to Jember, are known as the eastern salient, or "Kawasan Tapal Kuda" (the Horseshoe Region).

A remnant of Hindu tradition and syncretic abangan exists because of Islamic and Hinduism acculturation in Java.

East Java Demography articles: 23