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Dnipro

City and administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast in central Ukraine

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Dnipro

Дніпро
Ukrainian transcription(s)
 • RomanizationDnipro
Flag
Coat of arms
Dnipro
Location of Dnipro in Ukraine
Coordinates: 48°27′N 35°02′E / 48.450°N 35.033°E / 48.450; 35.033Coordinates: 48°27′N 35°02′E / 48.450°N 35.033°E / 48.450; 35.033
CountryUkraine
OblastDnipropetrovsk Oblast
City Municipality Dnipro
Founded1776 (245 years ago) (officially[1])
City Status1778
Administrative HQDnipro City Hall,
75 Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt
Raions
Government
 • TypeCity council, regional
 • MayorBorys Filatov[2] (Proposition[2])
Area
 • City of regional significance409,718 km2 (158,193 sq mi)
Elevation
155 m (509 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • City of regional significance 990,724
 • Rank4th, UA
 • Density2,411/km2 (6,240/sq mi)
 • Metro
993,220
Demonym(s)Dnipryanin, Dnipryanka, Dnipryani
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
49000—49489
Area code(s)+380 56(2)
Websitedniprorada.gov.ua

Dnipro (Ukrainian: Дніпро [d(j)n(j)iˈprɔ] ( listen); Russian: Днепр,[3] romanized: Dnepr [dʲnʲepr]), previously called Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: Дніпропетро́вськ [ˌd(j)n(j)ipropeˈtrɔu̯sʲk]; Russian: Днепропетро́вск, romanizedDniepropetrovsk [dʲnʲɪprəpʲɪˈtrofsk]) from 1926 until May 2016, is Ukraine's fourth-largest city, with about one million inhabitants.[4][5][6][7] It is located in the central-eastern part of Ukraine, 391 kilometres (243 mi)[8] southeast of the Ukrainian capital Kyiv on the Dnieper River, after which it is named. Dnipro is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance, the centre of Dnipro municipality and extraterritorial administrative centre of Dnipro Raion. It has a population of 990,724 (2020 est.).[9]

Archeological findings suggest that the first fortified town in the territory of present-day Dnipro probably dates to the mid-16th century.[1] Other findings suggest that the town Samar, now a neighborhood in Dnipro's Samarskyi District, existed in the 1520s.[10][11]

Known as Ekaterinoslav (Russian: Екатериносла́в, romanized: Yekaterinoslav [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnɐˈsɫaf]; Ukrainian: Катериносла́в, romanized: Katerynoslav [kɐtɛrɪnoˈslɑu̯]) until 1925, the city was formally inaugurated by the Russian Empress Catherine the Great (Russian: Екатерина, romanizedEkaterina - hence its then name) in 1787 as the administrative centre of the newly acquired vast territories of imperial New Russia, including those ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774). Grigory Potemkin originally envisioned the city as the Russian Empire's third capital city,[12] after Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Renamed Dnepropetrovsk in 1926, it became a vital industrial centre of Soviet Ukraine, one of the key centres of the nuclear, arms, and space industries of the Soviet Union. In particular, it is home to the Yuzhmash, a major space and ballistic-missile design bureau and manufacturer. Because of its military industry, it functioned as a closed city[nb 1] until the 1990s. On 19 May 2016, Ukraine's Verkhovna Rada changed the official name of the city from Dnipropetrovsk to Dnipro.[13]

Dnipro is a powerhouse of Ukraine's business and politics and is the native city of many of the country's most important figures. Much of Ukrainian politics continues to be defined by the legacies of Leonid Kuchma, Pavlo Lazarenko and Yulia Tymoshenko, whose intermingled political careers started in Dnipropetrovsk.

Dnipro Intro articles: 27

History

Toponymy

Over time, Dnipro has been known by a number of names:

  • Yekaterinoslav 1776–1782, reestablished 1783–1797
  • Novorossiysk 1797–1802
  • Yekaterinoslav 1802–1918
  • Sicheslav 1918–1921 (unofficial name)[14]
  • Yekaterinoslav / Katerynoslav 1918–1926
  • Dniepropetrovsk / Dnipropetrovsk, also Dnipropetrovske according to the Kharkiv orthography 1926–2016
  • Dnipro 2016–present

The spelling Catharinoslav was found on some maps of the nineteenth century.[15]

In some Anglophone media the city was also known as the Rocket City.[16]

In 1918, the Central Council of Ukraine proposed to change the name of the city to Sicheslav; however, this was never finalised.[17]

In 1926 the city was renamed after Communist leader Grigory Petrovsky.[18][19] The 2015 law on decommunization required the city to be renamed,[18] and on 19 May 2016 the Ukrainian parliament passed a bill to officially rename the city to Dnipro.[13][nb 2][nb 3]

Among other names it was also known as Polovytsia.[25]

Middle Ages

Kipchak statues near the Historical Museum, Akademik Yavornytsky Avenue

A monastery was founded by Byzantine monks on Monastyrskyi Island, probably in the 9th century (870 AD). The Tatars destroyed the monastery in 1240.[26]

At the beginning of the 15th century, Tatar tribes inhabiting the right bank of the Dnieper were driven away by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the mid-15th century, the Nogai (who lived north of the Sea of Azov) and the Crimean Khanate invaded these lands. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate agreed to a border along the Dnieper, and farther east along the Samara River (Dnieper), i.e. through what is today the city of Dnipro. It was in this time that a new force appeared: the free people, the Cossacks. They later became known as Zaporozhian Cossacks (Zaporizhia – the lands south of Prydniprovye, translate as "The Land Beyond the Weirs [Rapids]"). This was a period of raids and fighting causing considerable devastation and depopulation in that area; the area became known as the Wild Fields.

Early modern

Map of Kodak Fortress which was constructed in 1635 (up is west)
Settlements in the vicinity before establishment of Yekaterinoslav

Archeological findings strongly suggest that the first fortified town in what is now Dnipro was probably built in the mid-16th century.[1][27] Archeologic foundings suggest that the town Samar, now a neighborhood in Dnipro's Samarskyi District, existed in 1524.[10] Archaeologists of the Dnipro National University have discovered artifacts there dated around 1520s.[11] According to historical findings on the current territory of the city's Amur-Nyzhnodniprovskyi District there was a village located there called Kamyanka that was founded in 1596.[28] In 1635, the Polish Government built the Kodak Fortress above the Dnieper Rapids at Kodaky (on the south-eastern outskirts of modern Dnipro), partly as a result of rivalry in the region between Poland, Turkey and Crimean Khanate,[27] and partly to maintain control over Cossack activity (i.e. to suppress the Cossack raiders and to prevent peasants moving out of the area).[29] On the night of ​34 August 1635, the Cossacks of Ivan Sulyma captured the fort by surprise, burning it down and butchering the garrison of about 200 West European mercenaries under Jean Marion.[29] The fort was rebuilt by French engineer Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan[30] for the Polish Government in 1638, and had a mercenary garrison.[29] Kodak was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks on 1 October 1648, and was garrisoned by the Cossacks until its demolition in accordance with the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711.[31] The ruins of the Kodak are visible now. There is currently a project to restore it and create a tourist centre and park-museum.[31]

Following the Treaty of Andrusovo, the lands of Zaporizhian Sich (around Kodak fortress) were under a condominium between the Russian Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Rzeczpospolita relinquished its control over the area with signing of the 1686 Treaty of Perpetual Peace and, thus, handing over Zaporizhia to Russia.

In 1688 Zaporozhian Cossacks and Tatar forces unsuccessfully tried to destroy the Russian troops in the town's Bohorodytsia Fortress (built for the Russian Tsar) but ended up destroying the unprotected lower town only.[1] Cossacks in 1711 forced the Russians troops out of the town under the Treaty of the Pruth; this time in an alliance with the Tatars and the Ottoman Empire.[1] Two fortresses on territory of the future Ukrainian metropolis, Kodak Fortress and Bohorodytsia Fortress (on territory of Samar), were razed in accordance to the Russian treaty.

In the mid-1730s Russians troops returned to the Bohorodytsia Fortress.[1]

The Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia was founded in the late-1760s, between the settlements of Stari (Old) and Novi (New) Kodaky. It was located at the present centre of the city to the West to district of Central Terminal and the Ozyorka farmers market.[32]

Cossacks and the Russian army had fought against the Ottoman Empire for control of this area in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ended this war in July 1774, and in May 1775 the Russian army destroyed the Zaporozhian Sich, thus eliminating the political autonomy of Cossacks. In 1775, Prince Grigori Potemkin was appointed governor of Novorossiya, and after the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich, he started founding cities in the region and encouraging foreign settlers.

Establishment of Catherine's city

Map of Ekaterinoslav, 1885[nb 4]
Catherine the Great monument in Ekaterinoslav (1840–1920)

Prior to 1926 the city currently called Dnipro was known as Ekaterinoslav, which could be approximately rendered as "the glory of Catherine", with reference to Catherine the Great, who reigned as Empress of Russia from 1762 to 1796. (The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) connects city traditions with the name of Saint Catherine of Alexandria (c. 287 to c. 305).[33][34] According to one account, the city was founded in 1787[1] (the official founding year was set to 1776 in 1976 in an effort to please the general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev[1]) as the administrative centre of Russia's newly re-established Azov Governorate (founded in 1775).

The original town of Yekaterinoslav was founded in 1777 by the Azov Governor Vasiliy Alexeyevich Chertkov [uk] (in office 1775–1781) on the orders of Grigory Potemkin,[35] not in the current location, but at the confluence of the River Samara with the Kilchen River near Loshakivka, north of the Dnieper.[35] The city was named in honor of the Russian Empress Catherine the Great.[35] By 1782 the city had a population of 2,194.[35] However the site had been badly chosen - spring waters transformed the city into a bog.[32][35] The settlement there was later renamed Novomoskovsk (today Novomoskovsk, Ukraine).[36]

On 22 January 1784 Catherine the Great signed an Imperial Ukase stating the following, "the gubernatorial city under name of Yekaterinoslav to be by better convenience on the right bank of Dnieper near Kaidak" ("губернскому городу под названием Екатеринослав быть по лучшей удобности на правой стороне реки Днепр у Кайдака...").[35] Construction started on the site of Zaporizhian sloboda Polovytsia that had existed at least since 1740s.[35] Here were the wintering estates of the Cossack officers Mykyta Korzh, Lazar Hloba, and others.[35]

The ceremonial laying the foundation of Yekaterinoslav as the centre of the Yekaterinoslav Viceroyalty took place on 20 May 1787 on the hill where Zhovtneva Square is now.[35] The population of Yekaterinoslav-Kil'chen were (according to some sources) transferred to the new site. Potemkin had extremely ambitious plans for the city. In drafting and construction of the city took part prominent Russian architects Ivan Starov, Vasily Stasov, Andreyan Zakharov.[35] The city's development started along Dnieper from two opposite ends divided by deep ravines.[35] It was to be about 30 by 25 km (19 by 16 mi) in size, and included[32] Transfiguration Cathedral (the claim that it was intended as the largest in the world probably results from confusing Potemkin's reference to San Paulo-fuori-le-mura in Rome with St Peter's Basilica.[36]); university (never built); botanical garden on Monastyrskyi Island and wide straight avenues through the city. In 1790 at the hilly part of the city was built the Potemkin's princely palace on draft of Ivan Starov.[35] The cathedral's foundation stone was laid by Empress Catherine II and Austrian Emperor Joseph II, during Catherine's Crimean journey[37] on 20 May [O.S. 9 May] 1787, which was heralded as the official date of founding the city. Nevertheless, the cathedral as originally designed was never to be built. The site for the Potemkin palace was bought from retired Cossack yesaul (colonel) Lazar Hloba, who owned much of the land near the city. Part of Lazar Hloba's gardens still exist and are now called Hloba Park.[32]

A combination of yet another Russo-Turkish war that broke out later in 1787, bureaucratic procrastination, defective workmanship, and theft resulted in what was built being less than originally planned. Construction stopped after the death of Potemkin (1791) and of his sponsor, Empress Catherine (1796), who was succeeded by her son Emperor Paul I - known for his open antipathy to his mother's policies and undertakings. Plans were reconsidered and scaled back. The size of the cathedral was reduced, and construction finished only in 1835.

The origin of industrial centre

Main Post Office, 1870

In 1794 in the city started to operate a big treasury-sponsored manufacture that consisted of two factories: cloth factory that was transferred here from town of Dubrovny Mogilev Governorate along with workers and serf-peasants and silk-stockings factory that was brought from village of Kupavna near Moscow.[35] The workers for silk stockings factory were bought at an auction for 16,000 rubles.[35] In 1797 at the cloth factory worked 819 permanent workers among which were 378 women and 115 children.[35] At the stockings factory a bigger portion of workers consisted of women.[35] Those workers lived in barracks that were located where today is Lakes (Ozerna) Square and along Dnieper embankment where later appeared a factory sloboda.[35] To those manufactures were also assigned 1,186 men of rural population who were settled along Mokra Sura River where later appeared Sursko-Lytovska (Sura-Lithuanian) Sloboda.[35] Most of buildings for those factories were built out of wood on a draft of Russian architect Fyodor Volkov.

Work conditions at those factories as well as during initial development of the city were harsh.[35] People were dying in hundreds from cold, famine, and back-breaking work.[35] Even Potemkin himself was forced to admit that fact.[35] The factories did not always pay their workers on time and often underpay.[35] The factory report of 26 March 1797 indicated about "inadequate" accommodations of workers dwellings.[35] It was a hastily assembled housing suitable only for summertime.[35]

From 1797 to 1802,[35] the city was renamed as Novorossiysk by the Russian Emperor Paul I of Russia,[35] when it served as a centre of the recreated Novorossiya Governorate, and subsequently, till 1925, of the Ekaterinoslav Governorate.

The city business in majority was based in processing of agricultural raw materials.[35] Only in 1832 in the city was founded a small iron-casting factory of Zaslavsky, which became the first company of its kind.[35] The factory only employed 15 workers.[35]

Yekaterinoslav Avenue, 1910

Despite the bridging of the Dnieper in 1796 and the growth of trade in the early 19th century, Ekaterinoslav remained small until the 1880s, when the railway was built and industrialization of the city began.[38] The boom was caused by two men: John Hughes, a Welsh businessman who built an iron works at what is now Donetsk (then Yuzovka) in 1869–72, and developed the Donetsk coal deposits;[32] and the Russian geologist Alexander Pol, who discovered the Kryvyi Rih iron ore in 1866, during archaeological research.[32]

The Donetsk coal was necessary for smelting pig iron from the Kryvyi Rih ore, producing a need for a railway to connect Yozovka with Kryvyi Rih. Permission to build the railway was given in 1881, and it opened in 1884. The railway crossed the Dnieper at Ekaterinoslav. The city grew quickly; new suburbs appeared: Amur, Nyzhnodniprovsk and the factory areas developed. In 1897, Ekaterinoslav became the third city in the Russian Empire to have electric trams. The Higher Mining School opened in 1899, and by 1913 it had grown into the Mining Institute.[32]

Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, among other things, resulted in widespread revolts against the government in many places of Russia, Ekaterinoslav being one of the major hot spots.[39] Dozens of people were killed and hundreds wounded. There was a wave of anti-Semitic attacks.[32]

From 1902 to 1933, the historian of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, Dmytro Yavornytsky, was Director of the Dnipro Museum, which was later named after him. Before his death in 1940, Yavornytsky wrote a History of the City of Ekaterinoslav, which lay in manuscript for many years. It was only published in 1989 as a result of the Gorbachev reforms.

The Grand Hotel Ukraina, on the corner of Korolenko Street and Akademik Yavornitskyi Avenue. Peter Fetisov, the architect, built the hotel as an apartment building for Vladimir Khrennikov in 1910–14. The building burned down in 1943 and was rebuilt in 1943 by Vladimir Zuyev.[40]

Ukrainian War of Independence

After the Russian February revolution in 1917, Ekaterinoslav became a city within autonomy of Ukrainian People's Republic under Tsentralna Rada government. In November 1917, the Bolsheviks led a rebellion and took power for a short time. On 5 April 1918 the German army took control of the city.[41] And according to the February 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Central Powers it became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic.[42] The city experienced occupation by German and Austrian-Hungarian armies that were allies of Ukrainian Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi and helped him to keep authority in the country.

In the time of the Ukrainian Directorate government, with its head Symon Petliura, the city had periods of uncertain power. At times the anarchists of Nestor Makhno held the city,[43] at times the Ukrainian People's Republic,[43] and at others Denikin's Volunteer Army. Military operations of the Red Army, which came in from the North, captured the city in 1919, and despite attempts by Russian General Wrangel in 1920, he was unable to reach Yekaterinoslav. The War ended the following year.

Soviet Union and Nazi rule

The city was renamed after the Communist leader of Ukraine Grigory Petrovsky

The city was renamed after the Communist leader of Ukraine Grigory Petrovsky in 1926.[19][44]

Dnipropetrovsk was under Nazi occupation from 26 August 1941[45] to 25 October 1943.[46] As part of the Holocaust, in February 1942 Einsatzgruppe D reduced the city's Jewish population from 30,000 to 702 over the course of four days.[47]

Closed city

As early as July 1944, the State Committee of Defence in Moscow decided to build a large military machine-building factory in Dnipropetrovsk on the location of the pre-war aircraft plant. In December 1945, thousands of German prisoners of war began construction and built the first sections and shops in the new factory. This was the foundation of the Dnipropetrovsk Automobile Factory.

The city's Comedy and Drama Theatre was constructed during the Stalinist period.

Joseph Stalin suggested special secret training for highly qualified engineers and scientists to become rocket construction specialists.

In 1954 the administration of this automobile factory opened a secret design office with the name "Southern" (konstruktorskoe biuro Yuzhnoe – in Russian) to construct military missiles and rocket engines. Hundreds of talented physicists, engineers and machine designers moved from Moscow and other large cities in the Soviet Union to Dnipropetrovsk to join this "Southern" design office. In 1965, the secret Plant No. 586 was transferred to the Ministry of General Machine-Building of the USSR. The next year this plant officially changed its name to "the Southern Machine-building Factory" (Yuzhnyi mashino-stroitel'nyi zavod) or in abbreviated Russian, simply Yuzhmash.

The first "General Constructor" and head of the "Southern" design office was Mikhail Yangel, a prominent scientist and outstanding designer of space rockets, who managed not only the design office, but the entire factory from 1954 to 1971. Yangel designed the first powerful rockets and space military equipment for the Soviet Ministry of Defence.

In 1951 the Southern Machine-building Factory began manufacturing and testing new military rockets for the battlefield. The range of these first missiles was only 270 kilometres (168 miles). By 1959 Soviet scientists and engineers developed new technology, and as a result, the "Southern" design office (KBYu – as abbreviated in Russian) started a new machine-building project making ballistic missiles. Under the leadership of Yangel, KBYu produced such powerful rocket engines that the range of these ballistic missiles was practically without limits. During the 1960s, these powerful rocket engines were used as launch vehicles for the first Soviet space ships. During Makarov's directorship, Yuzhmash designed and manufactured four generations of missile complexes of different types. These included space launch vehicles Kosmos, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 and Zenit. Under the leadership of Yangel's successor, V. Utkin, the KBYu created a unique space-rocket system called Energia-Buran. Yuzhmash engineers manufactured 400 technical devices that were launched in artificial satellites (Sputniks). For the first time in the world space industry, the Dnipropetrovsk missile plant organised the serial production of space Sputniks. By the 1980s, this plant manufactured 67 different types of space ships, 12 space research complexes and four defence space rocket systems.

These systems were used not only for purely military purposes by the Ministry of Defence, but also for space research, for global radio and television networks, and for ecological monitoring. Yuzhmash initiated and sponsored the international space program of socialist countries, called Interkosmos.

The unfinished 'Parus' hotel on the embankment has become a symbol of poor economic planning in the Soviet era

On the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union, KBYu had 9 regular and corresponding members of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, 33 full professors and 290 scientists holding a PhD. They awarded scientific degrees and presided over a prestigious graduate school at KBYu, which attracted talented students of physics from all over the USSR. More than 50,000 people worked at Yuzhmash. At the end of the 1950s, Yuzhmash became the main Soviet design and manufacturing centre for different types of missile complexes. The Soviet Ministry of Defence included Yuzhmash in its strategic plans. The military rocket systems manufactured in Dnipropetrovsk became the major component of the newly born Soviet Missile Forces of Strategic Purpose.

According to contemporaries, Yuzhmash was a separate entity inside the Soviet state. After a long period of competition with the Moscow centre of rocket construction of V. Chelomei (a successor of Koroliov), Yuzhmash rocket designs won in 1969. Since that time leaders of the Soviet military industrial complex preferred Yuzhmash rocket models. By the end of the 1970s, this plant became the major centre for designing, constructing, manufacturing, testing and deploying strategic and space missile complexes in the Soviet Union. The general designer and director of Yuzhmash supervised the work of numerous research institutes, design centres and factories all over the Soviet Union from Moscow, Leningrad and Kyiv, to Voronezh and Yerevan. The Soviet state provided billions of Soviet rubles to finance Yuzhmash projects.

Officially, Yuzhmash manufactured agricultural tractors and special kitchen equipment for everyday needs, such as mincing-machines or juicers for civilian Soviet households. In official reports for the general audience there was no information about the production of rockets or spaceships. However, hundreds of thousands of workers and engineers in the city of Dnipropetrovsk worked in this plant and members of their families (up to 60% of the city population) knew about the "real production" of Yuzhmash. This missile plant became a significant factor in the arms race of the Cold War. This is why the Soviet government approved of the KGB's secrecy about Yuzhmash and its products. According to the Soviet government's decision, the city of Dnipropetrovsk was officially closed to foreign visitors in 1959. No citizen of a foreign country (even of the socialist ones) was allowed to visit the city or district of Dnipropetrovsk. After the late 1950s ordinary Soviet people called Dnipropetrovsk "the rocket closed city." Only during perestroika was Dnipropetrovsk opened to foreigners again in 1987.

Contemporary

In June 1990,[48] the women's department of Dnipropetrovsk preliminary prison was destroyed in prison riots. In the ten years that followed, women under investigation (i.e. not convicted) in Dnipropetrovsk oblast were either held in Preliminary Prison 4 in Kryvyi Rih or in "detention blocks" in Dnipropetrovsk; this contravened Ukrainian Law "On preliminary incarceration". Journeys from Kryviy Rih took up to six hours in special railway carriages with grated windows. Some prisoners had to do this 14 or 15 times. After complaints by the ombudsman (Nina Karpacheva) the head of the State prison department of Ukraine (Vladimir Levochkin) arranged that finances were given for the provision of women's cells in Dnipropetrovsk Preliminary Prison, making the lives of the 15,000 unconvicted women-detainees easier from August 2000.[49]

In 2005, the most powerful representative of the "Dnipropetrovsk Faction" in Ukrainian politics was Leonid Kuchma, the former President of Ukraine and former senior manager of Yuzhmash.

In June and July 2007, Dnipropetrovsk experienced a wave of random serial killings that were dubbed by the media as the work of the "Dnipropetrovsk maniacs".[50] In February 2009, three youths were sentenced for their part in 21 murders, and numerous other attacks and robberies.[51]

On 27 April 2012, four bombs exploded near four tram stations in Dnipropetrovsk, injuring 26 people.

Modern buildings on the right bank

During the 2014 Euromaidan regional state administration occupations protests against President Viktor Yanukovych were also held in Dnipropetrovsk.[52] On 26 January, 3,000 anti-Yanukovych activists attempted to capture the local regional state administration building, but failed.[53][54][55][56][57] This was mirrored by instances of rioting[58] and the beating up of anti-Yanukovych protesters.[59][60] Dnipropetrovsk Governor Kolesnikov called the anti-Yanukovych protesters 'extreme radical thugs from other regions'.[61] Two days later about 2,000 public sector employees called an indefinite rally in support of the Yanukovych government.[62] Meanwhile, the government building was reinforced with barbed wire.[62][63][64] On 19 February 2014 there was an anti-Yanukovych picket near the Regional State Administration.[65] On 22 February 2014 after another anti-Yanukovych picket near the Regional State Administration Dnipropetrovsk Mayor Ivan Kulichenko left Yanukovych's Party of Regions "for peace in the city".[66] Simultaneously the Dnipropetrovsk City Council vowed to supports "the preservation of Ukraine as a single and indivisible state", although some members called for separatism and for federalization of Ukraine.[66] The City Council also decided to rename city's Lenin Square into "Heroes of Independence Square".[66] In the Regional State Administration building protesters dismantled Viktor Yanukovych portrait.[66] 22 February 2014 was also the day that Yanukovych was ousted out of office, after violent events in Kyiv.[67]

According to media reports, Dnipropetrovsk was relatively quiet during the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, with pro-Russian Federation protestors outnumbered by those opposing outside intervention.[68][69] In March 2014 the city's Lenin Square was renamed "Heroes of Independence Square" in honor of the people killed during Euromaidan.[69][70] The statue of Lenin on the square was removed.[69][71] In June 2014 another Lenin monument was removed and replaced by a monument to the Ukrainian military fighting the War in Donbass.[72][73]

In order to comply with the 2015 decommunization law the city was renamed Dnipro in May 2016, after the river that flows through the city.[13][18] By summer 2016 not only the city was renamed, but also more than 350 streets, alleys, driveways, squares and parks in it.[74] This was 12 percent of all of the city's toponymies.[74] Also five of the eight urban districts (of the city) received new names.[74]

Dnipro History articles: 136

Government

The City of Dnipro is governed by the Dnipro City Council. It is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its oblast.

Administratively, the city is divided into "districts in city" ("raiony v misti"). Presently, there are 8 of them. Aviatorske, an urban-type settlement located near the Dnipropetrovsk International Airport, is also a part of Dnipro Municipality.

The City Council Assembly makes up the administration's legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or rada. The municipal council is made up of 12 elected members, who are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a four-year term. The current council was elected in 2015. The council has 29 standing commissions which play an important role in the oversight of the city and its merchants.

Dnipro has five single-mandate parliamentary constituencies entirely within the city, through which members of parliament (MPs) are elected to represent the city in Rada. At the last (2014) general election, were won by PPB and independent candidates with. In multimember districts city voted for Opposition Bloc, union of all political forces that did not endorse Euromaidan.

In the last decades the city has generally supported candidates belonging to the Party of Regions and (in the 1990s) Communist Party of Ukraine in national and local elections. There was the same situation in presidential elections, with strong support for Leonid Kuchma and Viktor Yanukovych. After the 2014 events of Euromaidan, which included mass demonstrations and clashes in the central city, Regions lost its influence, and Dnipropetrovsk supported Petro Poroshenko. In the 2015 Ukrainian local elections Borys Filatov of the patriotic UKROP[75] was elected Mayor of Dnipro.[76] Filatov was reelected in the 2020 Ukrainian local elections, this time as a member of Proposition.[2]

Dnipro is also the seat of the oblast's local administration controlled by the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Rada. The governor of the oblast is the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Rada speaker, appointed by the President of Ukraine.

Subdivisions

Area map
Dnipro City Hall
Building of Dnipropetrovsk Regional Administration
Central post office of Dnipro
Vokzalna square
Prydniprovsk Power Plant
Code Name of raion Year of creation Area (hectares) Population in 2006 Most important streets and areas
1 Amur-Nyzhnodniprovskyi 1918/1926 7,162.6 154,400 Streets: Vulytsia Peredova, Prospekt Manuilyvskyi, Prospekt Slobozhanskyi, Vulytsia Kalynova, Vulytsia Vidchyznyana, Vulytsia Yantarna, Donetske Shose
Areas: Amur, Nizhnedneprovsk, Kirillovka, Borzhom, Sultanovka, Sakhalin, Berezanovka, Sonyachnyi Estate, Frunzensky Estate, Livoberezhnyi Estates 1 and 2.
2 Shevchenkivskyi 1973 3,145.2 152,000 Streets: Prospekt Bohdana Khmelnytskoho, Vulytsia Mykhaila Hrushevskoho/Vulytsia Sichovykh Striltsiv, Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt, Vulytsia Sviatoslava Khorobroho, Zaporizke Shosse, Vulytsia Krotova
Areas: Tsentr, Slobodka, Razvlika-Podstantsiya, 12th Kvartal, Topol Estate 1, 2 and 3, Mirnyi, Danila Nechaya.
3 Sobornyi 1935 4,409.3 169,500 Streets: Prospekt Gagarina, Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt, Sicheslavska naberezhna/Peremogy, Vulytsia Volodymyra Vernadskoho, Vulytsia Gogolya, Vulytsia Chesnyshevskogo, Vulytsia Kosmichna, Vulytsia Yasnopolyanska
Areas: Tsentr, Nagorny (Lagerny), Podstantsiya, Sokol Estate 1 and 2, Peremoga Estate 1–6, Mandrykivka, Lotskamenka, Tonnelnaya Balka, Monastyrskyi Ostriv, Kosa.
4 Industrialnyi 1969 3,267.9 132,700 Streets: Prospekt Slobozhanskyi, Prospekt Petra Kalnyshevskoho, Vulytsia Osinnya, Vulytsia Baykalska, Vulytsia Vinokurova
Areas: Klochko, Samarovka (Yozhefstal), Oleksandrivka, Livoberezhnyi Estate 1–3; Nizhnedniprovskyi Pipe Production Plant.
5 Tsentralnyi 1932 1,040.3 67,200 Streets: Vulytsia Staryi Shlyakh, Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt, Prospekt Pushkina, Vulytsia Yaroslava Mudroho, Vulytsia Voitsekhovycha, Vulytsia Korolenko, Prospekt Bohdana Khmelnytskoho, Staromostova Square
Areas: Bus Station, River Station and port.
6 Chechelivskyi 1933 3,589.7 120,600 Vulytsia Robitnycha, Prospekt Nigoyana, Prospekt Pushkina, Vulytsia Kirovozhska, Vulytsia Makarova, Vulytsia Titova, Vulytsia Budivelnykiv, Prospekt Bohdana Khmelnytskoho
Areas: Chechelovka, Aptekarska Balka/Shlyakhova, 12th Kvartal, Krasnopole, Southern Machine-building Plant.
7 Novokodatskyi 1920 10,928 157,400 Streets: Vulytsia Naberezhna Zavodska, Prospekt Nigoyana, Prospekt Mazepy, Prospekt Metallurgov, Vulytsia Kyivska, Vulytsia Kommunarovska, Prospekt Svobody, Vulytsia Brativ Trofimovykh, Vulytsia Mostova, Vulytsia Mayakovskogo, Vulytsia Budennogo
Areas: Toromske, Dievka, Sukhachevka, Yasny, Novi Kaydaki, Sukhii Ostriv, Chervonij Kamin Estate, Kommunar Estate, Parus Estate 1 and 2, Zakhidnyi Estate, Petrovsky Factory and other metallurgical plants.
8 Samarskyi 1977 6,683.4 77,900 Streets: Vulytsia Marshala Malinovskogo, Vulytsia Molodogvardiiska, Vulytsia Semaforna, Vulytsia Tomska, Vulytsia Kosmonavta Volkova, Vulytsia 20 rokiv Peremogy, Vulytsia Gavanska
Areas: Chapli, Pridniprovsk, Igren, Rybalske (Fischersdorf), Odinkovka, Shevchenko, Pivnichnyi Estate, Nizhniodniprovsk-Vuzol.

Five of the eight city districts were renamed late November 2015 to comply with decommunization laws.[77]

Dnipro Government articles: 18

Geography

An aerial view of Dnipro. The Dnieper River, city's left and right banks, and a number of bridges can be seen.

The city is built mainly upon both banks of the Dnieper, at its confluence with the Samara River. In the loop of a major meander, the Dnieper changes its course from the north west to continue southerly and later south-westerly through Ukraine, ultimately passing Kherson, where it finally flows into the Black Sea.

Nowadays both the north and south banks play home to a range of industrial enterprises and manufacturing plants. The airport is located about 15 km (9.3 mi) south-east of the city.

The centre of the city is constructed on the right bank which is part of the Dnieper Upland, while the left bank is part of the Dnieper Lowland. The old town is situated atop a hill that is formed as a result of the river's change of course to the south. The change of river's direction is caused by its proximity to the Azov Upland located southeast of the city.

One of the city's streets, Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt, links the two major architectural ensembles of the city and constitutes an important thoroughfare through the centre, which along with various suburban radial road systems, provides some of the area's most vital transport links for both suburban and inter-urban travel.

Climate

Under the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system, Dnipro has a humid continental climate (Dfa/Dfb).[78] Snowfall is more common in the hills than at the city's lower elevations. The city has four distinct seasons: a cold, snowy winter; a hot summer; and two relatively wet transition periods. However, according to other schemes (such as the Salvador Rivas-Martínez bioclimatic one), Dnipro has a Supratemperate bioclimate, and belongs to the Temperate xeric steppic thermoclimatic belt, due to high evapotranspiration.[79] During the summer, Dnipro is very warm (average day temperature in July is 24 to 28 °C (75 to 82 °F), even hot sometimes 32 to 36 °C (90 to 97 °F). Temperatures as high as 36 °C (97 °F) have been recorded in May. Winter is not so cold (average day temperature in January is −4 to 0 °C (25 to 32 °F), but when there is no snow and the wind blows hard, it feels extremely cold. A mix of snow and rain happens usually in December.

The best time for visiting the city is in late spring (late April and May), and early in autumn: September, October, when the city's trees turn yellow. Other times are mainly dry with a few showers.[80]

"However, the city is characterized with significant pollution of air with industrial emissions."[81] The "severely polluted air and water" and allegedly "vast areas of decimated landscape" of Dnipro and Donetsk are considered by some to be an environmental crisis.[82] Though exactly where in Dnipropetrovsk these areas might be found is not stated.[82]

Climate data for Dnipro (1981–2010, extremes 1948–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
17.5
(63.5)
24.1
(75.4)
31.8
(89.2)
36.1
(97.0)
37.8
(100.0)
39.8
(103.6)
40.9
(105.6)
36.5
(97.7)
32.6
(90.7)
20.6
(69.1)
13.7
(56.7)
40.9
(105.6)
Average high °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
0.0
(32.0)
6.0
(42.8)
15.2
(59.4)
22.1
(71.8)
25.7
(78.3)
28.0
(82.4)
27.6
(81.7)
21.5
(70.7)
13.8
(56.8)
5.0
(41.0)
0.2
(32.4)
13.7
(56.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−3.4
(25.9)
1.8
(35.2)
9.7
(49.5)
16.1
(61.0)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
21.4
(70.5)
15.6
(60.1)
8.9
(48.0)
2.0
(35.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−6.2
(20.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
4.9
(40.8)
10.6
(51.1)
14.6
(58.3)
16.8
(62.2)
15.9
(60.6)
10.7
(51.3)
5.0
(41.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −30.0
(−22.0)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−8.2
(17.2)
−2.4
(27.7)
3.9
(39.0)
5.9
(42.6)
3.9
(39.0)
−3.0
(26.6)
−8.0
(17.6)
−17.9
(−0.2)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−30.0
(−22.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45
(1.8)
43
(1.7)
43
(1.7)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.7)
64
(2.5)
59
(2.3)
43
(1.7)
41
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
46
(1.8)
45
(1.8)
552
(21.7)
Average rainy days 9 8 11 13 13 13 12 9 10 11 12 11 132
Average snowy days 16 15 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 15 64
Average relative humidity (%) 88 85 79 67 62 66 65 62 70 77 87 88 75
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[83]

Cityscape

Dnipro is a primarily industrial city of around one million people; in being such it has developed into a large urban centre over the past few centuries to become, today, Ukraine's fourth-largest city after Kyiv, Kharkiv and Odesa.

Yavornytsky Historical Museum

Immediately after its foundation, Dnipro, or as it was then known Yekaterinoslav, began to develop exclusively on the right bank of the Dnieper River. At first the city developed radially from the central point provided by the Transfiguration Cathedral. Neoclassical structures of brick and stone construction were preferred and the city began to take on the appearance of a typical European city of the era. Of these buildings many have been retained in the city's older Sobornyi District.[84] Amongst the most important buildings of this era are the Transfiguration Cathedral, and a number of buildings in the area surrounding Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt, including the Khrennikov House.

In the early 1950s, during the ongoing industrialisation of the city, much of Dnipropetrovsk's centre was rebuilt in the Stalinist style of Socialist Realism.[85] The statue of Lenin pictured here was removed in March 2014.[86]

Over the next few decades, until the October Revolution in 1917 the city did not change much in appearance and the predominant architectural style remained that of neo-classicism. Notable buildings built in the era preceding the Bolsheviks' rise to power and the establishment of communist Ukraine and later its absorption into the Soviet Union, include the main building of the Dnipro Polytechnic, which was built in 1899–1901,[87] the art-nouveau inspired building of the city's former Duma,[88] the Dnipropetrovsk National Historical Museum, and the Mechnikov Regional Hospital. Other buildings of the era that did not fit the typical architectural style of the time in Dnipropetrovsk include,[89] the Ukrainian-influenced Grand Hotel Ukraine, the Russian revivalist style railway station (since reconstructed),[90] and the art-nouveau Astoriya building on Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt.

Stalinist architecture blends with the post-modernism of Dnipropetrovsk's 'Passage' shopping and entertainment centre[91]

Stalinist architecture (monumental soviet classicism) dominates in the city centre.[92] Once the bolsheviks had taken power in Dnipropetrovsk the city was gradually purged of tsarist-era monuments and monumental architecture was stripped of Imperial coats of arms and other non-socialist symbolism. In 1917, a monument to Catherine the Great that stood in front of the Mining Institute was replaced with one of Russian academic Mikhail Lomonosov.[93] Later, due to damage from the Second World War, a number of large buildings were reconstructed. The main railway station, for example, was stripped of its Russian-revival ornamentation and redesigned in the style of Stalinist social-realism,[94] whilst the Grand Hotel Ukraine survived the war but was later simplified much in design, with its roof being reconstructed in a typical French mansard style as opposed to the ornamental Ukrainian baroque of the pre-war era. Other badly damaged buildings were, more often than not, demolished completely and replaced with new structures.[95] This is one of the main reasons why much of Dnipro's central avenue, Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt, is designed in the style of Stalinist Social Realism.[96] Many pre-revolution buildings were also reconstructed to suit new purposes. For example, the Emperor Nicholas II Commercial Institute in the city was reconstructed to serve as the administrative centre for the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, a function it fulfils to this day. Other buildings, such as the Potemkin Palace were given over to the proletariat, in this case as the students' union of the Oles Honchar Dnipro National University.

Dnipro phiharmonic

After the death of Stalin and appointment of Khrushchev, who had spent his early working years in Ukraine, as party secretary, the industrialisation of Dnipropetrovsk became even more profound, with the Southern (Yuzhne) Missile and Rocket factory being set up in the city. However, this was not the only development and many other factories, especially metallurgical and heavy-manufacturing plants, were set up in the city.[97] At this point Dnipropetrovsk became one of the most important manufacturing cities in the Soviet Union, producing many goods from small articles like screws and vacuum cleaners to aircraft engine pieces and ballistic missiles. As a result of all this industrialisation the city's inner suburbs became increasingly polluted and were gradually given over to large, unsightly industrial enterprises. At the same time the extensive development of the city's left bank and western suburbs as new residential areas began.[97] The low-rise tenant houses of the Khrushchev era (Khrushchyovkas) gave way to the construction of high-rise prefabricated apartment blocks (similar to German Plattenbaus). In 1976 in line with the city's 1926 renaming a large monumental statue of Grigoriy Petrovsky was placed on the square in front of the city's station.[98] This statue was destroyed by an angry mob early 2016.[99]

To this day the city is characterised by its mix of architectural styles, with much of the city's centre consisting of pre-revolutionary buildings in a variety of styles, stalinist buildings and constructivist architecture, whilst residential districts are, more often than not, made up of aesthetically simple, technically outdated mid-rise and high-rise housing stock from the Soviet era. Despite this, the city does have a large number of 'private sectors' were the tradition of building and maintaining individual detached housing has continued to this day.

Since the independence of Ukraine in 1991 and the economic development that followed, a number of large commercial and business centres have been built in the city's outskirts.

A panoramic view of the city

Late November 2015 about 300 streets, 5 of the 8 city districts and one metro station were renamed to comply with decommunization laws.[77]

Dnipro Geography articles: 23