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College basketball

Amateur basketball played by students of higher education institutions

Top 3 College basketball related articles

NCAA men's college basketball game between Virginia Cavaliers and Duke Blue Devils

College basketball in the United States is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the United States Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA), the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), and the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA). Each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes.

Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools. These conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA,[1] but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.[2]

College basketball Intro articles: 3

History

The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt. The date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is generally given as December 21, 1891.[1][3][2] Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893.[4]

Collegiate firsts

The first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893, which Vanderbilt won 9–6.[4] The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, which Geneva won 3–0.[4]

The first recorded game between two college teams occurred on November 22, 1894, when the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry (now known as Drexel University) faced Temple College (now known as Temple University).[5] Drexel won the game, which was played under rules allowing nine players per side, among many other variations from modern basketball, 26–1. The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is often credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896.[4][6] The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at Springfield YMCA.[7][6] However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it reportedly did not officially represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA.[7] By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country.

Tournaments

The Amateur Athletic Union's annual U.S. national championship tournament (first played in 1898) often featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: Utah (1916), NYU (1920), Butler (1924) and Washburn (1925). College teams were also runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.

The first known tournament featuring exclusively college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, and a collegiate championship tournament was held.[8] The Olympic title was won by Hiram College.[8] In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series.[9][10]

In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament exclusively for college teams. The champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate.[11] Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.

The first organization to tout a regularly occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was quickly surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938.[7] Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36.[7]

NCAA tournament

In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, and it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it ultimately lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team (when the NIT comprised 12 and the NCAA 8 teams), the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, and effectively indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it.[12] Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.[13] The NCAA tournament eventually overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner of ten NCAA Tournament championships, a shift in power to teams from the west amplified the shift of attention away from the New York City-based NIT. When the NCAA tournament expanded its field of teams from 25 to 32 in 1975, to 48 in 1980, to 64 in 1985, and to 68 teams in 2011, interest in the NCAA tournament increased again and again, as it comprised more and more teams, soon including all of the strongest ones. (Expansion also improved the distribution of playing locations, which number roughly one-third the number of teams in the field.)

In 2011, the NCAA field expanded to 68 teams and the last 8 teams playing for four spots making the field into 64, which is called the first round and so on. The former first round is called the second round, the second round is called the third round, and the Sweet Sixteen is the same, but it is technically the fourth round in the current format, etc.[14]

In 2016, the field did not expand, but the round numbers changed again. The first four games containing the last 8 teams is now referred to as the first four. Consequently, the first round does not start until the first four games are out of the way and the field is narrowed to 64 teams. So after the first four games the first round starts instead of that being the second round. The Second is now when there are 32 teams left, the sweet sixteen is the third round, and so on.[15]

In 2020, for the first time in the NCAA's history, the tournament had to be canceled due to fears of the COVID-19 pandemic. This move was done largely out of fear of the virus spreading to players and watchers, with prior attempts to limit the spread without canceling by first choosing to limit attendees, and then canceling the tournament in its entirety.[16]

Racial integration

Racial integration of all-white collegiate sports teams was high on the regional agenda in the 1950s and 1960s. Involved were issues of equality, racism, and the alumni demand for the top players needed to win high-profile games. The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) took the lead. First they started to schedule integrated teams from the North. The wake-up call came in 1966 when Don Haskins's Texas Western College team with five black starters upset the all-white University of Kentucky team to win the NCAA national basketball championship.[17] That happened at a time when there were no black varsity basketball players in either the Southeastern Conference or the Southwest Conference. Finally ACC schools—typically under pressure from boosters and civil rights groups—integrated their teams.[18][19] With an alumni base that dominated local and state politics, society and business, the ACC flagship schools were successful in their endeavor—as Pamela Grundy argues, they had learned how to win:

The widespread admiration that athletic ability inspired would help transform athletic fields from grounds of symbolic play to forces for social change, places where a wide range of citizens could publicly and at times effectively challenge the assumptions that cast them as unworthy of full participation in U.S. society. While athletic successes would not rid society of prejudice or stereotype—black athletes would continue to confront racial slurs...[minority star players demonstrated] the discipline, intelligence, and poise to contend for position or influence in every arena of national life.[20]

Original rules

The original rules for basketball were very different from today's modern rules of the sport, including the use of 8 players per side. In the beginning James Naismith established 13 original rules:

  1. The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
  2. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist.
  3. A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, with allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at a good speed.
  4. The ball must be held by the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it.
  5. No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking, or tripping in any way of an opponent is allowed. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed.
  6. A foul will be called when a player is seen striking at the ball with the fist, or when violations of rules 3 and 4 and such as described in rule 5 have been made.
  7. If either side makes three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents ("consecutive" means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul).
  8. A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal.
  9. When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them.
  10. The umpire shall be the judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men according to rule 5.
  11. The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals, with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.
  12. The time shall be two fifteen-minute halves, with five minutes rest between.
  13. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner.

History of NCAA Basketball Rule Changes

The following is a list of some of the major NCAA Basketball rule changes with the year they went into effect.[21][22]

Season Rule Change
1891–92 The first set of rules is created.
1900–01 A dribbler may not shoot for a field goal and may dribble only once, and then with two hands.
1908–09 A dribbler is permitted to shoot. The dribble is defined as the "continuous passage of the ball," making the double dribble illegal.
Players are disqualified upon committing their fourth personal foul (women).
1910–11 Players are disqualified upon committing their fourth personal foul (men).
No coaching is allowed during the progress of the game by anybody connected with either team. A warning is given for the first violation and a free throw is awarded after that.
1917–18 Players are disqualified upon committing their fifth personal foul (women only).
1920–21 The basket is moved to two feet from the baseline. Previously the players could climb the padded wall to get closer to the basket (with the new rule the wall is out of bounds).
A player can re-enter a game once. Before this rule, if a player left the game, he could not re-enter for the rest of the game.
1921–22 Running with the ball was changed from a foul to a violation.
1923–24 The player fouled must shoot his own free throws. Before this rule, one person usually shot all the free throws for a team.
1928–29 The charging foul by the dribbler is introduced.
1930–31 A held ball may be called when a closely guarded player is withholding the ball from play for 5 seconds.
1932–33 The 10-second (mid-court) line is introduced to reduce stalling (men only).
No player with the ball may stand in the free throw lane for more than 3 seconds.
1933–34 A player may re-enter a game twice.
1935–36 No offensive player (with or without the ball) may stand in the free throw lane for more than 3 seconds.
1937–38 The center jump after every made basket is eliminated.
1938–39 The ball will be thrown in from out of bounds at mid-court by the team shooting a free throw after a technical foul. Previously, the ball was put into play by a center jump after the technical free throw.
1939–40 Teams have the option of taking a free throw or taking the ball at midcourt.
1942–43 Any player who has yet to foul out, will be allowed to receive a fifth foul in overtime.
1944–45 Defensive goaltending is banned.
Five personal fouls disqualifies a player; no extra foul is permitted in overtime (men).
Unlimited substitution is allowed.
Offensive players cannot stand in the free throw lane for more than 3 seconds.
1948–49 Coaches are allowed to speak to players during a timeout.
1951–52 Games are to be played in four 10-minute quarters. Previously it was two 20-minute halves.
1952–53 Teams can no longer waive free throws and take the ball at midcourt.
1954–55 The one-and-one free throw is introduced allowing a player to take a second free throw if the first one is made.
Games return to two 20-minute halves.
1955–56 The two-shot penalty in existence for the last 3 minutes of each half is eliminated; the one-and-one free throw exists for the whole game.
1956–57 The free-throw lane is increased from 6 feet to 12 feet in width.
On the lineup for a free throw, the two spaces adjacent to the end line must be occupied by opponents of the shooter. In the past, one space was marked 'H' for the home team, and one 'V' for the visitors.
Grasping the rim is ruled unsportsmanlike conduct.
1957–58 Offensive goaltending is now banned.
One free throw for each common foul for the first six personal fouls in a half, and the one-and-one is used thereafter.
1967–68 The dunk is made illegal during the game and during warmups.
1969–70 Women's basketball introduces the five-player full-court game on an experimental basis.
1971–72 The five-player full-court game becomes mandatory for women's basketball.
The 30-second shot clock is introduced (women only).
1972–73 The free throw on the common foul for the first six personal fouls in a half is eliminated.
An official can charge a technical foul on a player for unsportsmanlike conduct if the official deems the player 'flopped' to get a charging call.
Freshmen are now eligible to play varsity basketball.
1973–74 Officials can now penalize players away from the ball for fouls for acts such as holding, grabbing and illegal screens.
1976–77 The dunk is made legal again.
1981–82 The jump ball is eliminated except for the start of the game and overtime if necessary. An alternating arrow will indicate possession of the ball in jump-ball situations in a game (men only).
1982–83 When a closely guarded player is guarded for 5 seconds, a jump ball is no longer required. Instead a turnover is created and the ball goes to the other team.
1983–84 Two free throws are issued if a foul occurs in the last two minutes of a half or in overtime (men only). This rule was rescinded a month into the season, before the start of conference play.
1984–85 A new, smaller ball ("size 6"; 28.5 inches circumference, 18 ounces) is introduced for women's play.
1985–86 The 45-second shot clock is introduced for men's play.
If a shooter is intentionally fouled and the basket is missed, the shooter will get two free throws and the team will get possession of the ball.
1986–87 A three-point shot was introduced, with the line a uniform 19 feet 9 inches (6.02 m) from the center of the basket. Mandatory for men's basketball; experimental for women's.
The men's alternating possession rule is extended to the women's game.
1987–88 The men's three-point line was made mandatory for women's basketball.
Each intentional personal foul gives the non-fouling team two free throws and possession of the ball (men only).
The NCAA adopts a single rule book for men's and women's basketball for the first time, although some rules differ between the sexes to this day.
1988–89 The men's rule regarding intentional fouls is extended to the women's game.
1990–91 Beginning with a team's 10th foul in a half, two free throws (the so-called "double bonus") are to be awarded for each non-shooting personal foul on the defense, and each loose-ball foul (men only).
Three free throws are awarded when a shooter is fouled from three-point range and misses the shot (both men and women).
1993–94 The men's shot clock is reduced from 45 seconds to 35 seconds.
The game clock will be stopped with successful baskets in the last minute of each half and in the last minute of overtime, with no substitution permitted.The 5-second rule regarding closely guarded players is eliminated.
1994–95 Scoring is restricted to a tap-in when 0.3 seconds or less remains on the game clock (men and women).
1997–98 The 5-second rule regarding closely guarded players is reinstated.
Timeouts can be made by players on the court or the head coach.
The "double bonus" introduced to the men's game in 1990 is extended to the women's game.
1998–99 In a held ball situation initiated by the defense, the defense shall gain possession of the ball regardless of the possession arrow.
1999–2000 The held ball rule from 1998 to 1999 was rescinded.
Maximum of five players occupying lane spaces during free throws in women's play (two from the shooting team, three from the defending team).
2000–01 In women's play only, if the defending team commits a foul during a throw-in after a made basket or free throw, the team putting the ball in play retains the right to run the end line during the subsequent throw-in.
2001–02 In women's play, six players now allowed in lane spaces (four defenders, two offensive players). Additionally, the defensive players nearest the basket are now required to line up in the second space from the basket.
2005–06 Kicked balls will no longer reset the shot clock. If the violation occurs with less than 15 seconds, the clock will be reset to 15 seconds.
2006–07 A timeout called by an airborne player falling out of bounds will not be recognized.
2007–08 The women's rule regarding lane alignment during free throws (maximum of four defenders and two offensive players, with the nearest defenders on the second space from the basket) is extended to the men's game.
2008–09 Three-point arc extended to 20 feet 9 inches (6.32 m) from the center of the basket for men's play only.
Referees may use instant replay to determine if a flagrant foul has been committed and who started the incident.
When the entire ball is over the level of the basket during a shot and touches the backboard, it is a goaltending violation if the ball is subsequently touched, even if still moving upward.
2011–12 Women's three-point arc extended to match men's arc.
Restricted area arc created 3 feet from the center of the basket (men and women). When an offensive player makes contact with a defender who establishes position within this area, the resulting foul is blocking on the defender.
2013–14 10-second backcourt rule introduced (women only).
Any timeout called within the 30 seconds preceding a scheduled media timeout break replaces the media timeout (women only).
2015–16 The men's shot clock changed to 30 seconds, making it identical to the women's shot clock.
Coaches prohibited from calling timeouts from the bench in live-ball situations; players remain free to do so.
Restricted area arc extended from 3 feet to 4 feet from the center of the basket (men only).
Dunks are permitted during warm-ups.
Number of timeouts for each team reduced from 5 to 4.
Women's basketball changed from 20-minute halves to 10-minute quarters.
In women's basketball, bonus free throws come into effect on the fifth team foul in a quarter; all bonus free throw situations result in two free throws.
The women's rule regarding timeouts within 30 seconds of a scheduled media timeout was extended to the men's game.
2016–17 Coaches allowed to call timeouts from the bench during inbounds plays before the pass is released.
2017–18 Men only: The shot clock will be reset to 20 seconds, or the amount remaining on the shot clock if greater, when the ball is inbounded in the frontcourt after (1) a defensive foul or (2) a deliberate kick or fisting of the ball by the defense.
Men only: If an injured player is unable to shoot free throws as the result of a flagrant foul, or if the player is bleeding, only his substitute can shoot the ensuing free throws.
Men only: When the ball is legally touched inbounds and an official immediately signals a clock stoppage, a minimum of 0.3 seconds must elapse on the game clock.
Men only: A player dunking the ball may hold onto the rim to prevent injury to himself or another player, even if it would result in another violation.
Women only: No new 10-second backcourt count awarded if the team in possession is granted and charged a timeout.
Women's basketball adopted the men's 4-foot restricted area arc.
Women only: Abandoned the "flagrant-1" and "flagrant-2" foul designations in favor of the FIBA standard of "unsportsmanlike" and "disqualifying" fouls. The new "unsportsmanlike" designation now includes contact dead-ball technicals.
2019–20 Men and women:[23][24]
  • For men's basketball, the three-point arc was extended to the FIBA distance of 6.75 meters (22 ft 2 in) from the center of the basket and 6.6 meters (21 ft 8 in) in the corners. This change took immediate effect in Division I, and will take effect in Divisions II and III in 2020–21. In women's basketball, the FIBA arc was planned be used as an experimental rule in postseason events apart from the NCAA championships (such as the WNIT and WBI), but none of these events were held in 2020.
  • After an offensive rebound in the frontcourt, the shot clock resets to 20 seconds, regardless of the amount of time remaining on the shot clock.

Men only:

  • Coaches are once again able to call live-ball timeouts from the bench, but only in the last 2 minutes of regulation time or the last 2 minutes of any overtime.
  • The list of calls reviewable by instant replay expanded to include basket interference and goaltending, but only in the last 2 minutes of regulation time or the last 2 minutes of any overtime.
  • Technical fouls will be assessed for derogatory comments on an opponent's race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, gender, gender expression, gender identify, sexual orientation or disability.

Women only:

  • The shot clock reset rule on defensive fouls and certain defensive violations adopted in the men's game in 2017–18 was extended to the women's game.
  • After any technical foul, the non-fouling team is awarded the ball at midcourt.
  • A player who receives one technical and one unsportsmanlike foul in the same game is automatically ejected.
  • If referees are at the replay monitor to review an unsportsmanlike or contact disqualifying foul, they can address any other acts of misconduct during the sequence being reviewed.

One-and-Done Rule

The One-and-Done rule has been a part of the Collegiate Basketball since 2006, the first NBA draft it affected. The rule was created by NBA Commissioner, David Stern, which changed the draft age from 18 years old to 19 years old. This change meant players could not be drafted into the NBA straight out of high school. Instead, however, they usually went to a college to play only one season before entering the following NBA draft when they are eligible, hence the name One-and-Done. The first player to be drafted during this "one-and-done era" was Tyrus Thomas, a forward out of Louisiana State, who was drafted fourth overall in 2006.

College basketball History articles: 57

Conferences

NCAA Division I

A map of all NCAA Division I basketball teams.

In 2020–2021, a total of 357 schools played men's basketball in 32 Division I basketball conferences. All of these schools also sponsor women's basketball except The Citadel and VMI, two military colleges that were all-male until the 1990s and remain overwhelmingly male today.

The conferences for 2020–21 are:

In the early decades of college basketball, and well into the 1970s, many schools played as independents, with no conference membership. However, the rise of televised college sports in the 1980s led to the formation of many new conferences and the expansion of previously existing conferences. The last Division I school to play as an independent in basketball was NJIT, which was forced to go independent in 2013 after the collapse of its former all-sports league, the Great West Conference. NJIT joined the Atlantic Sun Conference in 2015, leaving no Division I basketball independents.

NCAA Division II

A map of all NCAA Division II basketball teams.

As of the upcoming 2020–21 college basketball season, there are 23 Division II basketball conferences:

There are expected to be 5 independent Division II schools without conference affiliations for the 2020–21 season.

The most recent change in the list of Division II conferences is the demise of the Heartland Conference, which disbanded at the end of the 2018–19 school year. In 2017, eight of its nine members announced a mass exodus to the Lone Star Conference (LSC) effective in 2019. The remaining member would soon announce that it would become a de facto member of the Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association (MIAA), and one of the original eight schools to announce a move to the LSC later changed course and chose to become a de facto MIAA member as well. The two schools that moved to the MIAA are technically associate members because they do not sponsor football, a mandatory sport for full conference members.

NCAA Division III

Since its introduction in 1973, Division III has always had the lowest share of Black coaches. As of 2015, less than 10% of the coaches in Division III were black (compared to around 20% in Division II and 25% in Division III).[25]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Conference sponsors football.
  2. ^ The Commonwealth Coast Conference does not directly sponsor football, but operates Commonwealth Coast Football, a football-only league that remains a separate legal entity from the all-sports CCC.
  3. ^ a b This is one of the three leagues operated by the Middle Atlantic Conferences (MAC). It does not sponsor football, but several of its members play football in the MAC's Middle Atlantic Conference.

The most recent change to the roster of D-III conferences came in 2020, when the American Collegiate Athletic Association merged into the Capital Athletic Conference.

NAIA

From 1992 to 2020, the NAIA operated separate Division I and Division II men's and women's basketball championships; the distinction between the two divisions was that D-I schools awarded basketball scholarships while D-II schools chose not to. Basketball divisions were abolished after the 2019–20 season, and from 2020 to 2021 single men's and women's championships will be held.

Map of NAIA Division I
Map of NAIA Division II

National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA) Divisions I and II

  • Central Region
  • East Region
  • Mid-East Region
  • Mid-West Region
  • North Central Region
  • South Region
  • Southwest Region
  • West Region

National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) Divisions I, II, and III

California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA)

United States Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA)

Northwest Athletic Conference (NWAC)

  • Northern Region
  • Southern Region
  • Eastern Region
  • Western Region

Association of Christian College Athletics (ACCA)

Independent conferences

College basketball Conferences articles: 199