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Cambridge

City in Cambridgeshire, England

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Cambridge

City of Cambridge
King's College Chapel, seen from the Backs
Coat of arms
Cambridge shown within Cambridgeshire
Cambridge
Location within England
Cambridge
Location within the United Kingdom
Cambridge
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 52°12′19″N 0°07′09″E / 52.20528°N 0.11917°E / 52.20528; 0.11917
Sovereign state  United Kingdom
Country  England
RegionEast of England
Ceremonial county  Cambridgeshire
Admin HQCambridge Guildhall
Founded1st century
City status1951
Government
 • TypeNon-metropolitan district, city
 • Governing bodyCambridge City Council
 • MayorRuss McPherson (L)
 • MPs:Daniel Zeichner (L)
Anthony Browne (C)
Area
 • Total40.7 km2 (15.71 sq mi)
Elevation
6 m (20 ft)
Population
 (mid-2019 est. -)
 • Total124,798 (ranked 186th)
 • Ethnicity (2011)[1]
66% White British
1.4% White Irish
15% White Other
1.7% Black British
3.2% Mixed Race
11% British Asian & Chinese
1.6% other
Demonym(s)Cantabrigian
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcode
Area code(s)01223
ONS code12UB (ONS)
E07000008 (GSS)
OS grid referenceTL450588
Websitewww.cambridge.gov.uk

Cambridge (/ˈkmbrɪ/[2] KAYM-brij) is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately 55 miles (89 km) north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Cambridge built-up area (which is larger than the remit of Cambridge City Council) was 158,434 including 29,327 students.[3] Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, and there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not officially conferred until 1951.

The University of Cambridge was founded in 1209.[4] The buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, and the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, and the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology, also has its main campus in the city.

Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. Over 40 per cent of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average. The Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world includes the headquarters of AstraZeneca, a hotel, and the relocated Royal Papworth Hospital.[5]

The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece. The Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, and the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station.

Cambridge Intro articles: 23

History

Prehistory

Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.[6] Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC, perhaps relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae.[7]

Roman

The principal Roman site is a small fort (castrum) Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill.[8] It was constructed around AD 70 and converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads[9] and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham.[10]

Medieval

Trinity Street, pictured in 2008. Trinity College is on the left, with St John's College in the background.

Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is usually identified as Cair Grauth[11] listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.[12][14] Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century.[15] Their settlement – also on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge.[17] ("Granta-bridge"). (By Middle English, the settlement's name had changed to "Cambridge", and the lower stretches of the Granta changed their name to match.[18]) Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda.[16] Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement slowly expanded on both sides of the river.[16]

St Bene't's Church, the oldest standing building in Cambridgeshire, situated next to Corpus Christi College[19]
Peterhouse was the first college to be founded in the University of Cambridge.
The President's Lodge, Queens' College.

The arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878[20] Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank.[20] After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, wharves, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".[20]

In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill.[16] Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies.

The first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It gave Cambridge monopoly of waterborne traffic and hithe tolls and recognised the borough court.[21] The distinctive Round Church dates from this period.[22] In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by Oxford students fleeing from hostility.[23][24] The oldest existing college, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284.[25]

In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive but 16 of 40 scholars at King's Hall died.[26] The town north of the river was severely affected being almost wiped out.[27] Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill even one church.[26] With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.[28]

In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's participation in the Peasants' Revolt. The charter transfers supervision of baking and brewing, weights and measures, and forestalling and regrating, from the town to the university.[21] King's College Chapel, was begun in 1446 by King Henry VI.[29] The chapel was built in phases by a succession of kings of England from 1446 to 1515, its history intertwined with the Wars of the Roses, and completed during the reign of King Henry VIII.[29] The building would become synonymous with Cambridge, and currently is used in the logo for the City Council.[30]

Early modern

Cambridge in 1575

Following repeated outbreaks of pestilence throughout the 16th Century,[31] sanitation and fresh water were brought to Cambridge by the construction of Hobson's Conduit in the early 1600s. Water was brought from Nine Wells, at the foot of the Gog Magog Hills, into the centre of the town.[32]

Cambridge played a significant role in the early part of the English Civil War as it was the headquarters of the Eastern Counties Association, an organisation administering a regional East Anglian army, which became the mainstay of the Parliamentarian military effort before the formation of the New Model Army.[33] In 1643 control of the town was given by Parliament to Oliver Cromwell, who had been educated at Sidney Sussex College.[34] The town's castle was fortified and garrisoned with troops and some bridges were destroyed to aid its defence. Although Royalist forces came within 2 miles (3 km) of the town in 1644, the defences were never used and the garrison was stood down the following year.[33]

Early-industrial era

In the 19th century, in common with many other English towns, Cambridge expanded rapidly, due in part to increased life expectancy and improved agricultural production leading to increased trade in town markets.[35] The Inclosure Acts of 1801 and 1807 enabled the town to expand over surrounding open fields and in 1912 and again in 1935 its boundaries were extended to include Chesterton, Cherry Hinton, and Trumpington.[33]

The railway came to Cambridge in 1845 after initial resistance, with the opening of the Great Eastern Railway's London to Norwich line. The station was outside the town centre following pressure from the university to restrict travel by undergraduates.[36] With the arrival of the railway and associated employment came development of areas around the station, such as Romsey Town.[37] The rail link to London stimulated heavier industries, such as the production of brick, cement and malt.[35]

20th and 21st centuries

From the 1930s to the 1980s, the size of the city was increased by several large council estates.[38] The biggest impact has been on the area north of the river, which are now the estates of East Chesterton, King's Hedges, and Arbury where Archbishop Rowan Williams lived and worked as an assistant priest in the early 1980s.[39]

During the Second World War, Cambridge was an important centre for defence of the east coast. The town became a military centre, with an R.A.F. training centre and the regional headquarters for Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Hertfordshire, and Bedfordshire established during the conflict.[33] The town itself escaped relatively lightly from German bombing raids, which were mainly targeted at the railway. 29 people were killed and no historic buildings were damaged. In 1944, a secret meeting of military leaders held in Trinity College laid the foundation for the allied invasion of Europe.[35] During the war Cambridge served as an evacuation centre for over 7,000 people from London, as well as for parts of the University of London.[33]

Cambridge was granted its city charter in 1951 in recognition of its history, administrative importance and economic success.[33] Cambridge does not have a cathedral, traditionally a prerequisite for city status, instead falling within the Church of England Diocese of Ely. In 1962 Cambridge's first shopping arcade, Bradwell's Court, opened on Drummer Street, though this was demolished in 2006.[40] Other shopping arcades followed at Lion Yard, which housed a relocated Central Library for the city, and the Grafton Centre which replaced Victorian housing stock which had fallen into disrepair in the Kite area of the city. This latter project was controversial at the time.[41]

The city gained its second University in 1992 when Anglia Polytechnic became Anglia Polytechnic University. Renamed Anglia Ruskin University in 2005, the institution has its origins in the Cambridge School of Art opened in 1858 by John Ruskin. The Open University also has a presence in the city, with an office operating on Hills Road.[42]

Cambridge History articles: 83

Governance

Local government

Map showing the 2010 electoral boundaries of the city, with postcode districts superimposed.

Cambridge is a non-metropolitan district served by Cambridge City Council. Cambridge Local Authority District covers most of the city's urban area but some extends outside this into South Cambridgeshire District. Cambridge is one of five districts within the county of Cambridgeshire, and is bordered on all sides by the mainly rural South Cambridgeshire district. The city council's headquarters are in the Guildhall, a large building in the market square. Cambridge was granted a Royal Charter by King John in 1207, which permitted the appointment of a Mayor,[43] although the first recorded Mayor, Harvey FitzEustace, served in 1213.[44] City councillors now elect a mayor annually.

For electoral purposes the city is divided into 14 wards: Abbey, Arbury, Castle, Cherry Hinton, Coleridge, East Chesterton, King's Hedges, Market, Newnham, Petersfield, Queen Edith's, Romsey, Trumpington, and West Chesterton. The political composition of the city council is currently: 25 Labour councillors, 14 Liberal Democrat, 2 independent and one Conservative.[45]

Each of the 14 wards also elects councillors to Cambridgeshire County Council. Responsible for services including school education, social care and highways, since 2017 the County Council has been controlled by the Conservative Party.[46]

Westminster

The parliamentary constituency of Cambridge covers most of the city; Daniel Zeichner (Labour) has represented the seat since the 2015 general election. The seat was generally held by the Conservatives until it was won by Labour in 1992, then taken by the Liberal Democrats in 2005 and 2010, before returning to Labour in 2015. A southern area of the city, Queen Edith's ward,[47] falls within in the South Cambridgeshire constituency, whose MP is Anthony Browne (Conservative), first elected in 2019.

The University of Cambridge formerly had two seats in the House of Commons; Sir Isaac Newton was one of the most notable MPs. The Cambridge University constituency was abolished under 1948 legislation, and ceased at the dissolution of Parliament for the 1950 general election, along with the other university constituencies.

Cambridge Governance articles: 21

Geography and environment

Aerial view of Cambridge city centre

Cambridge is situated about 55 miles (89 km) north-by-east of London and 95 miles (152 kilometres) east of Birmingham. The city is located in an area of level and relatively low-lying terrain just south of the Fens, which varies between 6 and 24 metres (20 and 79 ft) above sea level.[48] The town was thus historically surrounded by low lying wetlands that have been drained as the town has expanded.[49]

The underlying geology of Cambridge consists of gault clay and Chalk Marl, known locally as Cambridge Greensand,[50] partly overlaid by terrace gravel.[49] A layer of phosphatic nodules (coprolites) under the marl were mined in the 19th century for fertiliser. It became a major industry in the county, and its profits yielded buildings such as the Corn Exchange, Fulbourn Hospital and St. John's Chapel until the Quarries Act 1894 and competition from America ended production.[50]

The River Cam flows through the city from the village of Grantchester, to the southwest. It is bordered by water meadows within the city such as Sheep's Green as well as residential development.[49] Like most cities, modern-day Cambridge has many suburbs and areas of high-density housing. The city centre of Cambridge is mostly commercial, historic buildings, and large green areas such as Jesus Green, Parker's Piece and Midsummer Common. Many of the roads in the centre are pedestrianised.

The rear of Old Court, Clare College, taken from the Backs.

Population growth has seen new housing developments in the 21st century, with estates such as the CB1[51] and Accordia schemes near the station,[52] and developments such as Great Kneighton, formally known as Clay Farm,[53] and Trumpington Meadows[54] currently under construction in the south of the city. Other major developments currently being constructed in the city are Darwin Green (formerly NIAB), and University-led developments at West Cambridge and North West Cambridge, (Eddington).

The entire city centre, as well as parts of Chesterton, Petersfield, West Cambridge, Newnham, and Abbey, are covered by an Air Quality Management Area, implemented to counter high levels of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere.[55]

Climate

The city has an oceanic climate. (Köppen: Cfb).[56] Cambridge currently has two official weather observing stations, the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), about 1 mile (2 km) north of the city boundary near Histon, and the Cambridge University Botanic Garden, about 1 mile south of the city centre. In addition, the Digital Technology Group of the University's Department of Computer Science and Technology[57] maintains a weather station on the West Cambridge site, displaying current weather conditions online via web browsers or an app, and also an archive dating back to 1995.[58]

The city, like most of the UK, has a maritime climate highly influenced by the Gulf Stream. Located in the driest region of Britain,[59][60] Cambridge's rainfall averages around 570 mm (22.44 in) per year, around half the national average,[61] The driest recent year was in 2011 with 380.4 mm (14.98 in)[62] of rain at the Botanic Garden and 347.2 mm (13.67 in) at the NIAB site.[63] This is just below the semi-arid precipitation threshold for the area, which is 350mm of annual precipitation.[64] Conversely, 2012 was the wettest year on record, with 812.7 mm (32.00 in) reported.[65] Snowfall accumulations are usually small, in part because of Cambridge's low elevation, and low precipitation tendency during transitional snow events.

Owing to its low lying, inland, and easterly position within the British Isles, summer temperatures tend to be somewhat higher than areas further west, and often rival or even exceed those recorded in the London area. July 2006 for example recorded the highest official mean monthly maximum (i.e. averaged over the entire month) of any month at any location in the UK since records began; 28.3 °C (82.9 °F), at both the NIAB[66] and Botanic Garden[67] observing stations. Cambridge also often records the annual highest national temperature in any given year – 30.2 °C (86.4 °F) in July 2008 at NIAB[68] and 30.1 °C (86.2 °F) in August 2007 at the Botanic Garden[69] are two recent examples. Other years include 1876, 1887, 1888, 1892, 1897, 1899 and 1900.[70] The absolute maximum stands at 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) recorded on 25 July 2019 at Cambridge University Botanic Garden,[71] which is also the national all time temperature record. Typically the temperature will reach 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or higher on over 25 days of the year over the 1981–2010 period,[72] with the annual warmest day averaging 31.5 °C (88.7 °F)[73] over the same period.

The absolute minimum temperature recorded at the Botanic Garden site was −17.2 °C (1.0 °F), recorded in February 1947,[74] although a minimum of −17.8 °C (0.0 °F) was recorded at the now defunct observatory site in December 1879.[75] More recently the temperature fell to −15.3 °C (4.5 °F) on 11 February 2012,[76] −12.2 °C (10.0 °F) on 22 January 2013[77] and −10.9 °C (12.4 °F)[78] on 20 December 2010. The average frequency of air frosts ranges from 42.8 days at the NIAB site,[79] to 48.3 days at the Botanic Garden[80] per year over the 1981–2010 period. Typically the coldest night of the year at the Botanic Garden will fall to −8.0 °C (17.6 °F).[81] Such minimum temperatures and frost averages are typical for inland areas across much of southern and central England.

Sunshine averages around 1,500 hours a year or around 35% of possible, a level typical of most locations in inland central England.

Climate data for Cambridge University Botanic Garden[a], elevation: 13 m (43 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1914–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
18.8
(65.8)
23.9
(75.0)
27.4
(81.3)
31.1
(88.0)
34.0
(93.2)
38.7
(101.7)
36.9
(98.4)
33.9
(93.0)
29.3
(84.7)
21.1
(70.0)
15.8
(60.4)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.0
(46.4)
11.1
(52.0)
13.8
(56.8)
17.5
(63.5)
20.4
(68.7)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73.0)
19.6
(67.3)
15.2
(59.4)
10.5
(50.9)
7.7
(45.9)
14.8
(58.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.6
(40.3)
7.1
(44.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.4
(54.3)
15.3
(59.5)
17.8
(64.0)
17.5
(63.5)
14.8
(58.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.2
(45.0)
4.7
(40.5)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.2
(34.2)
3.0
(37.4)
4.3
(39.7)
7.3
(45.1)
10.2
(50.4)
12.4
(54.3)
12.2
(54.0)
10.0
(50.0)
7.2
(45.0)
3.9
(39.0)
1.7
(35.1)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −16.1
(3.0)
−17.2
(1.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
−4.4
(24.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.2
(36.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−13.3
(8.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−17.2
(1.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.0
(1.81)
34.6
(1.36)
38.6
(1.52)
40.3
(1.59)
46.7
(1.84)
52.1
(2.05)
50.7
(2.00)
53.6
(2.11)
54.3
(2.14)
57.7
(2.27)
54.9
(2.16)
46.9
(1.85)
576.2
(22.69)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.7 8.4 9.9 8.9 8.1 9.2 8.4 8.2 8.4 9.5 10.2 9.7 109.6
Source: KNMI[82]


Ecology

The city contains three Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), at Cherry Hinton East Pit, Cherry Hinton West Pit, and Travellers Pit,[84] and ten Local Nature Reserves (LNRs): Sheep's Green and Coe Fen, Coldham's Common, Stourbridge Common, Nine Wells, Byron's Pool, West Pit, Paradise, Barnwell West, Barnwell East, and Logan's Meadow.[85]

Green belt

Cambridge is completely enclosed by green belt as a part of a wider environmental and planning policy first defined in 1965 and formalised in 1992.[86][87] While some small tracts of green belt exist on the fringes of the city's boundary, much of the protection is in the surrounding South Cambridgeshire[88] and nearby East Cambridgeshire[89] districts, helping to maintain local green space, prevent further urban sprawl and unplanned expansion of the city, as well as protecting smaller outlying villages from further convergence with each other as well as the city.[90]

Cambridge Geography and environment articles: 38

Demography

At the 2011 Census, the population of the Cambridge contiguous built-up area (urban area) was 158,434,[91] while that of the City Council area was 123,867.[92]

In the 2001 Census held during University term, 89.44% of Cambridge residents identified themselves as white, compared with a national average of 92.12%.[93] Within the University, 84% of undergraduates and 80% of post-graduates identified as white (including overseas students).[94]

Cambridge has a much higher than average proportion of people in the highest paid professional, managerial or administrative jobs (32.6% vs. 23.5%)[95] and a much lower than average proportion of manual workers (27.6% vs. 40.2%).[95] In addition, 41.2% have a higher-level qualification (e.g. degree, Higher National Diploma, Master's or PhD), much higher than the national average proportion (19.7%).[96]

Centre for Cities identified Cambridge as the UK's most unequal city in 2017 and 2018. Residents' income was the least evenly distributed of 57 British cities measured, with its top 6% earners accounting for 19% of its total income and the bottom 20% for only 2%, and a Gini coefficient of 0.460 in 2018.[97][98]

Historical population

Year Population Year Population
1749 6,131 6131
 
1901 38,379 38379
 
1911 40,027 40027
 
1801 10,087 10087
 
1921 59,212 59212
 
1811 11,108 11108
 
1931 66,789 66789
 
1821 14,142 14142
 
1951 81,500 81500
 
1831 20,917 20917
 
1961 95,527 95527
 
1841 24,453 24453
 
1971 99,168 99168
 
1851 27,815 27815
 
1981 87,209 87209
 
1861 26,361 26361
 
1991 107,496 107496
 
1871 30,078 30078
 
2001 108,863 108863
 
1891 36,983 36983
 
2011 123,900 123900
 

Local census 1749[99] Census: Regional District 1801–1901[100] Civil Parish 1911–1961[101] District 1971–2011[102]

Cambridge Demography articles: 4

Economy

The town's river link to the surrounding agricultural land, and good road connections to London in the south meant Cambridge has historically served as an important regional trading post. King Henry I granted Cambridge a monopoly on river trade, privileging this area of the economy of Cambridge[103] The town market provided for trade in a wide variety of goods and annual trading fairs such as Stourbridge Fair and Midsummer Fair were visited by merchants from across the country. The river was described in an account of 1748 as being "often so full of [merchant boats] that the navigation thereof is stopped for some time".[104] For example, 2000 firkins of butter were brought up the river every Monday from the agricultural lands to the North East, particularity Norfolk, to be unloaded in the town for road transportation to London.[104] Changing patterns of retail distribution and the advent of the railways led to a decline in Cambridge's importance as a market town.[105]

Cambridge Market viewed from the Tower of St. Mary the Great

Today Cambridge has a diverse economy with strength in sectors such as research & development, software consultancy, high value engineering, creative industries, pharmaceuticals and tourism.[106] Described as one of the "most beautiful cities in the world" by Forbes in 2010,[107] with the view from The Backs being selected as one of the 10 greatest in England by National Trust chair Simon Jenkins, tourism generates over £750 million for the city's economy.[108]

Cambridge and its surrounds are sometimes referred to as Silicon Fen, an allusion to Silicon Valley, because of the density of high-tech businesses and technology incubators that have developed on science parks around the city. Many of these parks and buildings are owned or leased by university colleges, and the companies often have been spun out of the university.[109] Cambridge Science Park, which is the largest commercial R&D centre in Europe, is owned by Trinity College;[110][111] St John's is the landlord of St John's Innovation Centre.[112] Technology companies include Abcam, CSR, ARM Limited, CamSemi, Jagex and Sinclair.[113] Microsoft has located its Microsoft Research UK offices in West Cambridge, separate from the main Microsoft UK campus in Reading, and also has an office on Station Road.

Cambridge was also the home of Pye Ltd, founded in 1898 by W. G. Pye, who worked in the Cavendish Laboratory; it began by supplying the University and later specialised in wireless telegraphy equipment, radios, televisions and also defence equipment.[35] Pye Ltd evolved into several other companies including TETRA radio equipment manufacturer Sepura. Another major business is Marshall Aerospace located on the eastern edge of the city. The Cambridge Network keeps businesses in touch with each other. The software company Autonomy Corporation is located at the Business Park on Cowley Road.

Cambridge Economy articles: 28

Transport

A guided bus on the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway

Because of its rapid growth in the 20th century, Cambridge has a congested road network.[114] The M11 motorway from east London terminates to the north-west of the city where it joins the A14, a major freight route which connects the port of Felixstowe on the east coast with the Midlands. The A428 connects the city with the A1 at St Neots: the route continues westwards towards Oxford (as the A421) via Bedford and Milton Keynes. The A10 connects the city to King's Lynn to the north via Ely, and is the historic route south to the City of London.

As a university town lying on fairly flat ground and with traffic congestion, Cambridge has the highest level of cycle use in the UK.[115] According to the 2001 census, 25% of residents travelled to work by bicycle. Furthermore, a survey in 2013 found that 47% of residents travel by bike at least once a week.[116]

Cambridge has five Park and Ride sites, all of which operate seven days a week and are aimed at encouraging motorists to park near the city's edge.[117] Since 2011, the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway has carried bus services into the centre of Cambridge from St Ives, Huntingdon, and other towns and villages along the routes, operated by Stagecoach in the Fens and Whippet.[118] The A service continues on to the railway station and Addenbrookes, before terminating at a new Park and Ride in Trumpington. Since 2017 it has also linked to Cambridge North railway station.

Although Cambridge has its own airport, Cambridge City Airport, it has no scheduled services and is used mainly by charter and training flights as well FBO services.[119] London Stansted Airport, about 30 miles (48 km) south via the M11 or direct rail, offers a broad range of international destinations.

In February 2020, consultations opened for a transport system known as the Cambridgeshire Autonomous Metro. It will connect the historic city centre and the existing busway route with the mainline railway stations, Cambridge Science Park, and Haverhill.[120]

Rail

Cambridge railway station.

Cambridge railway station was opened in 1845, initially linking to Bishopsgate station in London, via Bishops Stortford.[121] Further lines opened throughout the 19th century, including the Cambridge and St Ives branch line, the Stour Valley Railway, the Cambridge to Mildenhall railway, and the Varsity Line to Oxford. Another station was opened in Cherry Hinton though, at the time, this was a separate village to Cambridge. Several of these lines were closed during the 1960s.

Today, Cambridge station has direct rail links to London with termini at London King's Cross (via the Cambridge Line and the East Coast Main Line), Liverpool Street (on the West Anglia Main Line), and St Pancras (on the Thameslink line). Commuter trains to King's Cross run every half-hour during peak hours, with a journey time of 53 minutes.[122] Trains also run to King's Lynn and Ely (via the Fen Line), Norwich (via the Breckland Line), Leicester, Birmingham, Peterborough, Stevenage, Ipswich, Stansted Airport, Brighton and Gatwick Airport railway stations.

A second railway station, Cambridge North, opened on 21 May 2017, having originally planned to open in March 2015.[123][124][125] A third railway station, Cambridge South, near Addenbrooke's Hospital has been proposed.[126] It is expected to open in 2025.[127]