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Bodashtart inscriptions

Top 5 Bodashtart inscriptions related articles

The Bodashtart inscriptions are a well-known group of between 22–24 Phoenician inscriptions from the 6th century BC referring to King Bodashtart.[1][2]

The first known inscription was CIS I 4, said to be found in 1858 in a wall near Sidon.[2]

Subsequently, two series of inscriptions were found in the early 20th century at the Temple of Eshmun, near Sidon in Lebanon, immediately before and during the excavations there. They are known as KAI 15 and 16.[3] One of these set of inscriptions refers to only the name of Bodashtart (KAI 15), and the other refers to both Bodashtart and his heir Yatan-milk (KAI 16).[4][5][1]

CIS I 4

The first known Bodashtart inscription, known today as CIS I 4, currently in the Louvre as AO 4838

This was the earliest known Bodashtart inscription, and is a unique text. The dedication is to Astarte rather than to Eshmun like the other inscriptions.[6]

Bodashtart inscriptions CIS I 4 articles: 2

KAI 15 / RES 766

This group of inscriptions, each with text similar to the others, was first published together in the Répertoire d'Épigraphie Sémitique as RES 766.[7]

Inscription Discovered Current Location Inventory Code
A 1900 Louvre AO 3552
B 1900 Louvre AO 3553
C unknown unknown
D 1900 Louvre AO 4078
E 1900 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
F 1901 Istanbul Archaeology Museums Inv. 1457
G 1903 Istanbul Archaeology Museums Inv. 1486
H 1903 Istanbul Archaeology Museums Inv. 1488
I 1903 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
RES 1200 1900 Louvre (claimed to be a forgery)[8] AO 4077

Bodashtart inscriptions KAI 15 / RES 766 articles: 3

KAI 16 / RES 767

"Contenau I" inscription, published in 1920 and left in situ at the Temple of Eshmun[9]

This group of inscriptions, each with text similar to the others, was first published together in the Répertoire d'Épigraphie Sémitique as RES 767.[10]

Inscription Discovered Current Location Inventory Code
A 1902 AUB Museum
B 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
C 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums Inv. 3538
D 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
E 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
F 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
G 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
H 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
I 1904 Istanbul Archaeology Museums
K 1904 in situ (may be the Contenau inscriptions)
Contenau I 1920 in situ
Contenau II 1920 in situ
Contenau III 1920 in situ

Overview of "Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut" article

Notes

  1. ^ a b Bordreuil, 1990, "L'exemple le plus impressionnant est certainement celui des nombreuses dedicaces de Bodachtart decouvertes dans le temple d'Echmoun pres de Saida et conservees aujourd'hui dans plusieurs musees, auxquelles s'ajoutent trois exemplaires demeures in situ... Le nombre des inscriptions de Bodachtart mises au jour et repertories est a ce jour d'au moins dix-neuf (KAI 15 + 16) dont neuf (KAI 16) mentionnent Yatonmilk patronyme de Bodachtart. Il faut y ajouter RES 767 K in situ et les trois mentionnes par G. Contenau, soit quatre, a moins que RES 767 K ne soit la premiere mentionnee par G. Contenau, ce qui reduirait le supplement a trois. De plus on ne sait si l'estampage de RES 289 C correspond a un exemplaire connu par ailleurs ou s'il est le seul temoignage d'un exemplaire aujourd'hui disparu. A ma connaissance le nombre d'inscriptions de Bodachtart doit donc varier entre vingt-deux et vingt-quatre exemplaires dont douze ou treize mentionnent Yatonmilk patronyme de Bodachtart."
  2. ^ a b Zamora, 2007
  3. ^ Xella, Paola; José-Ángel Zamora López; Astrid Nunn (2005). "L'inscription phénicienne de Bodashtart in situ à Bustān ēš-Šēẖ (Sidon) et son apport à l'histoire du sanctuaire". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins (in French). 28 (121): 119–129. ISSN 0012-1169. Retrieved 2009-09-17. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ Lipiński, Edward (1995). Dieux et déesses de l'univers phénicien et punique (in French). Peeters Publishers. pp. 120–496. ISBN 978-90-6831-690-2. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ Elayi, Josette (2006). "An updated chronology of the reigns of Phoenician kings during the Persian period (539–333 BC)" (PDF). digitorient.com. Retrieved 2009-09-05. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ Bordreuil, 1990, "Il est étonnant de constater que cette inscription (fig. 18), connue un demi-siècle plus tôt que les dédicaces sidoniennes de Bodachtart, n'a pratiquement jamais été jointe au dossier jusqu'à présent. Cette unique inscription de Bodachtart fils de Bodachtart est dédiée à 'Achtart et non pas à Echmoun mais cela ne constitue pas un problème car le culte de 'Achtart comme celui d'Echmoun faisait partie des traditions de la famille régnante. On sait qu'Echmouna- zor II, dont la mère portait le nom de 'M'èTRT, s'attribue l'édification du temple d'Echmoun et de 'Achtart."
  7. ^ Répertoire d'Épigraphie Sémitique, Volume 1 p.155
  8. ^ Charles Cutler Torrey, "A Forged Phoenician Royal Inscription in the Louvre." The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 58, no. 2 (1941): 135-38. Accessed August 12, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/528810: "Visiting the Phoenician Collection in the Louvre in 1929, I was interested to see Beshira's inscription conspicuously placed, bearing the number A.O. 4077. The stone makes a fine appearance, as its former owner had said of it. Possibly it has deceived no one; but for the reputation of the old Phoenician carvers of inscriptions the fact of its true origin and character should be made known by a label, if it is put on exhibition. Since, however, the Collection possesses more than one of the inscribed stones from this temple, with the inscription complete and perfectly legible, there will be no good reason for exhibiting this additional example when it is understood to be a forgery."
  9. ^ Conteneau, Gaston (1924). "Deuxième mission archéologique à Sidon (1920)". Syria (in French). 5 (5–1): 9–23. doi:10.3406/syria.1924.3094. Retrieved 2009-08-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ Répertoire d'Épigraphie Sémitique, Volume 1 p.158

References