River in Lebanon
Top 7 Awali (river) related articles
|• location||Barouk and Niha mountains, Lebanon|
|Length||48 kilometres (30 mi)|
|Basin size||294 km2 (114 sq mi)|
|• average||10.1625 m3/s (358.89 cu ft/s)|
The Awali (Arabic: نهر الأولي / ALA-LC: Nahr al-Awalī, ancient Bostrenus / Bostrenos) is a perennial river flowing in Southern Lebanon. In ancient times it was known as the River Asclepius. It is 48 kilometres (30 mi) long, originating from the Barouk mountain at a height of 1,492 metres (4,895 ft) and the Niha mountain.
The Awali is supplemented by two tributaries, the Barouk and Aaray rivers. The Awali is also known as the Bisri river in its upper section; it flows through the western face of Mount Lebanon and into the Mediterranean. The Awali river has a discharge of 10.1625 m3/s (358.89 cu ft/s), it forms a watershed that has an area of about 294 km2 (114 sq mi). The rivers flows into Joun Lake, which is part of the Bisri Dam project to improve the supply of fresh water to the region. A large portion of the Bisri Dam project funding, from the World Bank, has been cancelled by the World Bank in September 2020.
- Renan, Ernest (1864). Mission de Phénicie dirigée par Ernest Renan: Texte (in French). Impr. impériale. p. 506.
- Lipiński, Edward (1992). Dictionnaire de la civilisation phénicienne et punique (in French). Brepols. p. 77. ISBN 978-2-503-50033-1.
- Lebanese Ministry of Environment (2008). Lebanon State of the Environment Report (PDF). Beirut: Ministry of Environment. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2010-08-03. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Arab Resource Development (2003). INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN CAMP AREA WITH DEMONSTRATIONS IN DAMOUR, SARAFAND AND NAQOURA MUNICIPALITIES (PDF). Beirut: Ministry of Environment. p. 55. Retrieved 2010-08-03. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Greater Beirut Water Supply Augmentation Project: Environment and Social Impact Assessment" (PDF).
- Ray, Kirshen and Vogel, Patrick A., Paul H., and Richard M. (2010). "Integrated Optimization of Dual Quality Water and Wastewater System". Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 136: 11 – via ascelibrary.
- "Q&A: Bisri Dam Project Cancelation". World Bank. Retrieved 2021-02-09.