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Auckland

City on the North Island, New Zealand

Top 10 Auckland related articles

Auckland

Tāmaki Makaurau (Māori)
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
City of Sails[1]
Queen City[2]
Auckland
Location in New Zealand
Auckland
Location in Oceania
Auckland
Location in the Pacific Ocean
Coordinates: 36°50′26″S 174°44′24″E / 36.84056°S 174.74000°E / -36.84056; 174.74000Coordinates: 36°50′26″S 174°44′24″E / 36.84056°S 174.74000°E / -36.84056; 174.74000
CountryNew Zealand
IslandNorth Island
RegionAuckland
Settled by Māoric. 1350
Settled by Europeans1840
Named forGeorge Eden, Earl of Auckland
NZ Parliament
Local boards
Government
 • BodyAuckland Council
 • MayorPhil Goff
 • MPs
Area
 • Urban607.10 km2 (234.40 sq mi)
Highest elevation
196 m (643 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (June 2020)[4]
 • Urban
1,470,100
 • Urban density2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
 • Regional/metro
1,717,500
 • Demonym
Aucklander
Time zoneUTC+12 (NZST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+13 (NZDT)
Postcode(s)
0600–2699
Area code(s)09
Local iwiNgāti Whātua, Tainui
Websitewww.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz

Auckland (Māori: Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about 1,470,100 (June 2020).[4] It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,717,500.[4] While Europeans continue to make up the plurality of Auckland's population, the city became multicultural and cosmopolitan in the late-20th century, with Asians accounting for 31% of the city's population in 2018. Auckland is also home to the largest Polynesian population in the world.[5] The Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki Makaurau, meaning "Tāmaki desired by many", in reference to the desirability of its natural resources and geography.[6]

Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf to the east, then extending in Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, and the Waitākere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west. The surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with 53 dormant volcanic cones. The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water.

The isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled c. 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans.[7] After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson, then Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital. He named the area for George Eden, Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. Māori–European conflict over land in the region led to war in the mid-19th century. Auckland was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but the city continued to grow, initially because of its port and logging and gold mining in its hinterland, later from pastoral farming (especially dairy farming), and manufacturing in the city itself.[8] It has throughout most of its history been the nation's largest city. Today, Auckland's central business district is New Zealand's leading economic hub.

The University of Auckland, founded in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. The city's varied cultural institutions—such as the Auckland War Memorial Museum, the Museum of Transport and Technology, and Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki—and national historic sites, festivals, performing arts, and sports activities are significant tourist attractions. Architectural landmarks include the Harbour Bridge, the Town Hall, the Ferry Building and the Sky Tower. The city is served by Auckland Airport, which handles around 2 million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world,[9] Auckland is recognised as one of the world's most liveable cities, ranked third in the 2019 Mercer Quality of Living Survey.[10][11]

Auckland Intro articles: 30

History

Early history

The isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, and was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many (fortified villages) were created, mainly on the volcanic peaks. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans.[7][12] The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids. As a result, the region had relatively low numbers of Māori when settlement by European New Zealanders began.[13][14]

Print of a painting of Auckland port, 1857

On 20 March 1840 in the Manukau Harbour area where Ngāti Whātua farmed, paramount chief Apihai Te Kawau signed Te Tiriti o Waitangi the Treaty of Waitangi.[15] Ngāti Whātua sought British protection from Ngāpuhi as well as a reciprocal relationship with the Crown and the Church. Soon after signing the Treaty, Te Kawau offered land on the Waitematā Harbour to the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, for his new capital, which Hobson named for George Eden, Earl of Auckland, then Viceroy of India.[16][17][18][19][20] Auckland was founded on 18 September 1840 and was officially declared New Zealand's capital in 1841,[21][22] and the transfer of the administration from Russell (now Old Russell) in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842. However, even in 1840 Port Nicholson (later renamed Wellington) was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, and Wellington became the capital in 1865. After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876.

Queen Street (c.1889); painting by Jacques Carabain. Most of the buildings depicted were demolished during rampant modernisation in the 1970s.[23]

In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hōne Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the Northern War had concluded. Outlying defensive towns were then constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east. Each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers; the men were fully armed in case of emergency, but spent nearly all their time breaking in the land and establishing roads.

In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement,[24] and the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce.[25] This, and continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā (European New Zealanders) influence to spread from Auckland. The city's population grew fairly rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845,[25] then to 12,423 by 1864. The growth occurred similarly to other mercantile-dominated cities, mainly around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the population was Irish, which contrasted heavily with the majority English settlers in Wellington, Christchurch or New Plymouth. Most of the Irish (though not all) were from Protestant Ulster. The majority of settlers in the early period were assisted by receiving cheap passage to New Zealand.

Modern history

Looking east over the area that became Wynyard Quarter with the Auckland CBD in the middle distance, c. 1950s.

Trams and railway lines shaped Auckland's rapid expansion in the early first half of the 20th century. However, after the Second World War the city's transport system and urban form became increasingly dominated by the motor vehicle.[26] Arterial roads and motorways became both defining and geographically dividing features of the urban landscape. They also allowed further massive expansion that resulted in the growth of suburban areas such as the North Shore (especially after the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in the late 1950s), and Manukau City in the south.

Economic deregulation in the mid-1980s led to dramatic changes to Auckland's economy and many companies relocated their head offices from Wellington to Auckland. The region was now the nerve centre of the national economy. Auckland also benefited from a surge in tourism, which brought 75 percent of New Zealand's international visitors through its airport. Auckland's port handled 31 percent of the country's container trade in 2015.[27]

The face of urban Auckland changed when the government's immigration policy began allowing immigrants from Asia in 1986. According to the 1961 census data, Māori and Pacific Islanders comprised 5 percent of Auckland's population; Asians less than 1 percent.[28] By 2006 the Asian population had reached 18.0 percent in Auckland, and 36.2 percent in the central city. New arrivals from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Korea gave a distinctive character to the areas where they clustered, while a range of other immigrants introduced mosques, Hindu temples, halal butchers and ethnic restaurants to the suburbs.[27]

Auckland History articles: 39

Geography

The urbanised extent of Auckland (red), as of 2009

Scope

The boundaries of Auckland are imprecisely defined. The Auckland urban area, as it is defined by Statistics New Zealand under the Statistical Standard for Geographic Areas 2018 (SSGA18), spans 607.07 km2 (234.39 sq mi) and extends to Long Bay in the north, Swanson in the north-west, and Runciman in the south.[29] The Hibiscus Coast is considered an urban area in its own right under SSGA18, having been included as part of the Auckland urban area under the previous standard (the New Zealand Statistical Area Classification 1992 or NZSAC92).[29] Auckland forms New Zealand's largest urban area.[4]

The Auckland urban area lies within the Auckland Region, an administrative region that takes its name from the city. The region encompasses the city centre, as well as suburbs, surrounding towns, nearshore islands, and rural areas north and south of the urban area.[30]

The Auckland central business district (CBD)—the city centre—is the most built-up area of the region. The CBD covers 433 hectares in a triangular area,[31] and is bounded by the Auckland waterfront on the Waitematā Harbour[32] and the inner-city suburbs of Ponsonby, Newton and Parnell.[31] Auckland's metropolitan area is made up of over two hundred suburban areas. The outermost suburbs are Orewa in the north, Papakura in the south, Henderson in the west and Howick in the east. Beyond these suburbs lie the towns of Wellsford, Warkworth and Helensville to the north, and Clevedon, Pukekohe and Waiuku to the south.[33]

Auckland cityscape viewed from Maungawhau / Mount Eden. The nearer body of water is the Waitematā Harbour and the farther the Hauraki Gulf.

Harbours, gulf and rivers

Satellite view of the Auckland isthmus and Waitematā Harbour
A view over Chelsea Sugar Refinery's lower dam towards Auckland Harbour Bridge and the CBD

Auckland lies on and around an isthmus, less than two kilometres wide at its narrowest point, between Mangere Inlet and the Tamaki River. There are two harbours surrounding this isthmus: Waitematā Harbour to the north, which opens east to the Hauraki Gulf and thence to the Pacific Ocean, and Manukau Harbour to the south, which opens west to the Tasman Sea. The total coastline of Auckland is 3,702 kilometres (2,300 mi) long.[34]

Bridges span parts of both harbours, notably the Auckland Harbour Bridge crossing the Waitematā Harbour west of the central business district. The Mangere Bridge and the Upper Harbour Bridge span the upper reaches of the Manukau and Waitematā Harbours, respectively. In earlier times, portage paths crossed the narrowest sections of the isthmus.

Several islands of the Hauraki Gulf are administered as part of the Auckland Region, though they are not part of the Auckland urban area. Parts of Waiheke Island effectively function as Auckland suburbs, while various smaller islands near Auckland are mostly zoned 'recreational open space' or are nature sanctuaries.

Auckland also has a total length of approximately 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi) of rivers and streams, about 8 percent of these in urban areas.[34]

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Auckland has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), while according to the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), its climate is classified as subtropical with warm humid summers and mild damp winters.[35][36] It is the warmest main centre of New Zealand and is also one of the sunniest, with an average of 2,003.1 sunshine hours per annum. The average daily maximum temperature is 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in February and 14.7 °C (58.5 °F) in July. The absolute maximum recorded temperature is 34.4 °C (93.9 °F) on 12 February 2009,[37] while the absolute minimum is −3.9 °C (25.0 °F), although there is also an unofficial low of −5.7 °C (21.7 °F) recorded at Riverhead Forest in June 1936.[38] Snowfall is extremely rare: the most significant fall since the start of the 20th century was on 27 July 1939, when snow stuck to the clothes of people outdoors just before dawn and five centimetres (2 in) of snow reportedly lay on Mount Eden.[39] Snowflakes were also seen on 28 July 1930 and 15 August 2011.[40][41] The early morning calm on the isthmus during settled weather, before the sea breeze rises, was described as early as 1853: "In all seasons, the beauty of the day is in the early morning. At that time, generally, a solemn stillness holds, and a perfect calm prevails...".[42]

Auckland occasionally suffers from air pollution due to fine particle emissions.[43] There are also occasional breaches of guideline levels of carbon monoxide.[44] While maritime winds normally disperse the pollution relatively quickly it can sometimes become visible as smog, especially on calm winter days.[45]

Climate data for Auckland Airport (1981–2010, extremes 1962–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
(86.0)
30.5
(86.9)
29.8
(85.6)
26.0
(78.8)
24.6
(76.3)
23.8
(74.8)
19.0
(66.2)
20.6
(69.1)
22.0
(71.6)
23.6
(74.5)
25.9
(78.6)
28.3
(82.9)
30.5
(86.9)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 27.6
(81.7)
27.6
(81.7)
26.4
(79.5)
23.7
(74.7)
21.2
(70.2)
19.2
(66.6)
18.3
(64.9)
17.6
(63.7)
20.0
(68.0)
21.3
(70.3)
22.4
(72.3)
25.2
(77.4)
27.6
(81.7)
Average high °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.7
(74.7)
22.4
(72.3)
20.1
(68.2)
17.7
(63.9)
15.5
(59.9)
14.7
(58.5)
15.1
(59.2)
16.5
(61.7)
17.8
(64.0)
19.5
(67.1)
21.6
(70.9)
19.0
(66.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
19.7
(67.5)
18.4
(65.1)
16.1
(61.0)
14.0
(57.2)
11.8
(53.2)
10.9
(51.6)
11.3
(52.3)
12.7
(54.9)
14.2
(57.6)
15.7
(60.3)
17.8
(64.0)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
15.8
(60.4)
14.4
(57.9)
12.1
(53.8)
10.3
(50.5)
8.1
(46.6)
7.1
(44.8)
7.5
(45.5)
8.9
(48.0)
10.4
(50.7)
12.0
(53.6)
14.0
(57.2)
11.3
(52.3)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
11.8
(53.2)
10.9
(51.6)
7.4
(45.3)
5.5
(41.9)
2.7
(36.9)
1.9
(35.4)
3.0
(37.4)
4.9
(40.8)
6.5
(43.7)
8.3
(46.9)
10.5
(50.9)
1.9
(35.4)
Record low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
8.7
(47.7)
6.6
(43.9)
3.9
(39.0)
0.9
(33.6)
−1.1
(30.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
4.4
(39.9)
7.0
(44.6)
−3.9
(25.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 73.3
(2.89)
66.1
(2.60)
87.3
(3.44)
99.4
(3.91)
112.6
(4.43)
126.4
(4.98)
145.1
(5.71)
118.4
(4.66)
105.1
(4.14)
100.2
(3.94)
85.8
(3.38)
92.8
(3.65)
1,210.7
(47.67)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.0 7.1 8.4 10.6 12.0 14.8 16.0 14.9 12.8 12.0 10.3 9.3 135.7
Average relative humidity (%) 79.3 79.8 80.3 83.0 85.8 89.8 88.9 86.2 81.3 78.5 77.2 77.6 82.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 228.8 194.9 189.2 157.3 139.8 110.3 128.1 142.9 148.6 178.1 188.1 197.2 2,003.1
Source 1: NIWA Climate Data,[46] CliFlo[47]
Source 2: MetService[48]

Volcanoes

The volcanic Rangitoto Island in the Hauraki Gulf. Viewed from Takarunga / Mount Victoria over Devonport.

Auckland straddles a volcanic field, which has produced about 90 volcanic eruptions from 50 volcanoes in the last 90,000 years.[49] It is the only city in the world built on a basaltic volcanic field that is still active. It is estimated that the field will stay active for about one million years. Surface features include cones, lakes, lagoons, islands and depressions, and several have produced extensive lava flows. Some of the cones and flows have been partly or completely quarried away. The individual volcanoes are all considered extinct, although the volcanic field itself is merely dormant.

The trend is for the latest eruptions to occur in the northwest of the field. Auckland has at least 14 large lava tubes which run from the volcanoes down towards the sea. Some are several kilometres long. A new suburb, Stonefields, has been built in an excavated lava flow, northwest of Maungarei / Mount Wellington, that was previously used as a quarry by Winstones.

Auckland's volcanoes are fuelled entirely by basaltic magma, unlike the explosive subduction-driven volcanism in the central North Island, such as at Mount Ruapehu and Lake Taupo which are of tectonic origin.[50] The most recent and by far the largest volcano, Rangitoto Island, was formed within the last 1000 years, and its eruptions destroyed the Māori settlements on neighbouring Motutapu Island some 700 years ago. Rangitoto's size, its symmetry, its position guarding the entrance to Waitematā Harbour and its visibility from many parts of the Auckland region make it Auckland's most iconic natural feature. Because of its rich acidic soil and the type of flora growing out of the rocky soil, only a few birds and insects inhabit the island.

Auckland Geography articles: 55

Demographics

Asians are Auckland's fastest growing ethnic group. Here, lion dancers perform at the Auckland Lantern Festival.

The Auckland urban area, as defined by Statistics New Zealand, covers 607.07 km2 (234.39 sq mi).[29] The urban area has an estimated population of 1,470,100 as of June 2020, 28.9 percent of New Zealand's population. The city has a population larger than the entire South Island (1,187,300).[4]

The Auckland urban area had a usual resident population of 1,346,091 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 122,343 people (10.0%) since the 2013 census, and an increase of 212,484 people (18.7%) since the 2006 census. There were 665,202 males and 680,886 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.977 males per female. Of the total population, 269,367 people (20.0%) were aged up to 15 years, 320,181 (23.8%) were 15 to 29, 605,823 (45.0%) were 30 to 64, and 150,720 (11.2%) were 65 or older.[51]

Culture and identity

Many ethnic groups have a presence in Auckland, making it by far the country's most cosmopolitan city. Historically, Auckland's population has been of majority European origin, though the proportion of those of Asian or other non-European origins has increased in recent decades due to the removal of restrictions directly or indirectly based on race. Europeans continue to make up the plurality of the city's population, but no longer constitute a majority after decreasing in proportion from 54.6% to 48.1% between the 2013 and 2018 censuses. Asians now form the second-largest ethnic group, making up nearly one-third of the population. Auckland is home to the largest ethnic Polynesian population of any city in the world, with a sizable population of Pacific Islanders and indigenous Māori people.[5][51]

At the 2018 census, 647,811 people (48.1%) living in the Auckland urban area were European/Pākehā, 424,917 (31.6%) were Asian, 235,086 (17.5%) were Pacific peoples, 154,620 (11.5%) were Māori, 33,672 (2.5%) were Middle Eastern, Latin American and/or African (MELAA), and 13,914 (1.0%) were other ethnicities (totals add to more than 100% since people could identify with multiple ethnicities).[51]

Largest groups of foreign-born residents[52]
Nationality Population (2018)
 China[a] 96,540
 India 71,358
 England 68,799
 Fiji 44,658
 Samoa 38,232
 South Africa 36,759
 Philippines 30,237
 Australia 21,903
 South Korea 21,753
 Tonga 20,913

Immigration to New Zealand is heavily concentrated towards Auckland (partly for job market reasons). This strong focus on Auckland has led the immigration services to award extra points towards immigration visa requirements for people intending to move to other parts of New Zealand.[53] Immigration from overseas into Auckland is partially offset by net emigration of people from Auckland to other regions of New Zealand, mainly Waikato and Bay of Plenty.[54] In the year to June 2020, 36,700 people (net) immigrated to Auckland from overseas, while 12,600 people (net) emigrated from Auckland to other regions of New Zealand, giving a total net migration of 24,100 people.[55]

At the 2018 Census, 41.6 percent of the Auckland region's population were born overseas; in the local board areas of Upper Harbour, Waitemata, Puketapapa and Howick, overseas-born residents outnumbered those born in New Zealand.[56][57] Auckland is home to over half (50.7 percent) of New Zealand's overseas-born population, including 70 percent of the country's Pacific Island and Northeast Asian-born populations, and 61 percent of its Middle Eastern and North African-born population, and 60 percent of its Southern and Central Asian-born population.[56][57]

Religion

St Matthew-in-the-City, a historic Anglican church in the Auckland CBD

Around 48.5 percent of Aucklanders at the 2013 census affiliated with Christianity and 11.7 percent affiliated with non-Christian religions, while 37.8 percent of the population were irreligious and 3.8 percent objected to answering. Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination with 13.3 percent affiliating, followed by Anglicanism (9.1 percent) and Presbyterianism (7.4 percent).[56]

Recent immigration from Asia has added to the religious diversity of the city, increasing the number of people affiliating with Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism, although there are no figures on religious attendance.[58] There is also a small, long-established Jewish community.[59]

Future growth

Projection of the Auckland Region's population growth to 2031

Auckland is experiencing substantial population growth via natural population increases (one-third of growth) and immigration (two-thirds),[60] and is set to grow to an estimated 1.9 million inhabitants by 2031[61][62] in a medium-variant scenario. This substantial increase in population will have a major impact on transport, housing and other infrastructure that are, particularly in the case of housing, already considered under pressure. The high-variant scenario shows the region's population growing to over two million by 2031.[63]

In July 2016, Auckland Council released, as the outcome of a three-year study and public hearings, its Unitary Plan for Auckland. The plan aims to free up to 30 percent more land for housing and allows for greater intensification of the existing urban area, creating 422,000 new dwellings in the next 30 years.[64]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1951 263,370—    
1961 381,063+44.7%
1971 548,293+43.9%
1981 742,786+35.5%
1991 816,927+10.0%
2001 991,809+21.4%
2006 1,074,453+8.3%
Source: NZ Census
This map of the Auckland Region emphasises areas with the highest residential population density. The red core comprises the Auckland urban area.

Auckland Demographics articles: 20

Culture and lifestyle

Pedestrians on Vulcan Lane in the CBD

Auckland's lifestyle is influenced by the fact that while it is 70 percent rural in land area, 90 percent of Aucklanders live in urban areas[65] – though large parts of these areas have a more suburban character than many cities in Europe and Asia.

Positive aspects of Auckland life are its mild climate, plentiful employment and educational opportunities, as well as numerous leisure facilities. Meanwhile, traffic problems, the lack of good public transport, and increasing housing costs have been cited by many Aucklanders as among the strongest negative factors of living there,[66] together with crime.[67] Nonetheless, Auckland ranked third in a survey of the quality of life of 215 major cities of the world (2015 data).[68]

Leisure

Sailboats at Takapuna Beach on the North Shore
Yachts docked in Westhaven Marina on the Waitematā Harbour

One of Auckland's nicknames, the "City of Sails", is derived from the popularity of sailing in the region.[1] 135,000 yachts and launches are registered in Auckland, and around 60,500 of the country's 149,900 registered yachtsmen are from Auckland,[69] with about one in three Auckland households owning a boat.[70] The Viaduct Basin, on the western edge of the CBD, hosted two America's Cup challenges (2000 Cup and 2003 Cup).

The Waitematā Harbour is home to several notable yacht clubs and marinas, including the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron and Westhaven Marina, the largest of the Southern Hemisphere.[69] The Waitematā Harbour has several swimming beaches, including Mission Bay and Kohimarama on the south side of the harbour, and Stanley Bay on the north side. On the eastern coastline of the North Shore, where the Rangitoto Channel divides the inner Hauraki Gulf islands from the mainland, there are popular swimming beaches at Cheltenham and Narrow Neck in Devonport, Takapuna, Milford, and the various beaches further north in the area known as East Coast Bays.

The west coast has popular surf beaches such as Piha, Muriwai and Te Henga (Bethells Beach). The Whangaparaoa Peninsula, Orewa, Omaha and Pakiri, to the north of the main urban area, are also nearby. Many Auckland beaches are patrolled by surf lifesaving clubs, such as Piha Surf Life Saving Club the home of Piha Rescue. All surf lifesaving clubs are part of the Surf Life Saving Northern Region.

Queen Street, Britomart, Ponsonby Road, Karangahape Road, Newmarket and Parnell are major retail areas. Major markets include those held in Ōtara and Avondale on weekend mornings. A number of shopping centres are located in the middle- and outer-suburbs, with Westfield Newmarket, Sylvia Park, Botany Town Centre and Westfield Albany being the largest.

Arts

A number of arts events are held in Auckland, including the Auckland Festival, the Auckland Triennial, the New Zealand International Comedy Festival, and the New Zealand International Film Festival. The Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra is the city and region's resident full-time symphony orchestra, performing its own series of concerts and accompanying opera and ballet. Events celebrating the city's cultural diversity include the Pasifika Festival, Polyfest, and the Auckland Lantern Festival, all of which are the largest of their kind in New Zealand. Additionally, Auckland regularly hosts the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. Auckland is part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the category of music.[71]

The modern section of the Auckland Art Gallery, completed in 2011

Important institutions include the Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland War Memorial Museum, New Zealand Maritime Museum, National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy, and the Museum of Transport and Technology. The Auckland Art Gallery is the largest stand-alone gallery in New Zealand with a collection of over 15,000 artworks, including prominent New Zealand and Pacific Island artists, as well as international painting, sculpture and print collections ranging in date from 1376 to the present day.

In 2009 the Gallery was promised a gift[72] of fifteen works of art by New York art collectors and philanthropists Julian and Josie Robertson – including well-known paintings by Paul Cézanne, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Paul Gauguin and Piet Mondrian. This is the largest gift ever made to an art museum in Australasia.

Parks and nature

Albert Park in central Auckland
View from the top of Maungawhau / Mount Eden

Auckland Domain is one of the largest parks in the city, close to the Auckland CBD and having a good view of the Hauraki Gulf and Rangitoto Island. Smaller parks close to the city centre are Albert Park, Myers Park, Western Park and Victoria Park.

While most volcanic cones in the Auckland volcanic field have been affected by quarrying, many of the remaining cones are now within parks, and retain a more natural character than the surrounding city. Prehistoric earthworks and historic fortifications are in several of these parks, including Maungawhau / Mount Eden, North Head and Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill.

Other parks around the city are in Western Springs, which has a large park bordering the MOTAT museum and the Auckland Zoo. The Auckland Botanic Gardens are further south, in Manurewa.

Ferries provide transport to parks and nature reserves at Devonport, Waiheke Island, Rangitoto Island and Tiritiri Matangi. The Waitākere Ranges Regional Park to the west of Auckland has relatively unspoiled bush territory, as do the Hunua Ranges to the south.

Sport

Major sporting venues

Rugby union, cricket, rugby league, association football (soccer) and netball are widely played and followed. Auckland has a considerable number of rugby union and cricket grounds, and venues for association football, netball, rugby league, basketball, hockey, ice hockey, motorsports, tennis, badminton, swimming, rowing, golf and many other sports.

There are also three racecourses within the city - (Ellerslie and Avondale for thoroughbred racing, and Alexandra Park for harness racing). A fourth racecourse is located at Pukekohe, straddling the boundary between Auckland and the neighbouring Waikato Region. Greyhound racing is held at Manukau Stadium.

Major teams

Sporting teams based in Auckland who compete in national or trans-national competitions are as follows:

Major events

Annual sporting events held in Auckland include:

  • The ATP Auckland Open and the WTA Auckland Open (both known for sponsorship reasons as the ASB Classic), are men's and women's tennis tournaments, respectively, which are held annually at the ASB Tennis Centre in January. The men's tournament has been held since 1956, and the women's tournament since 1986.
  • The Auckland Super400 (known for sponsorship reasons as the ITM Auckland Super 400) is a Supercars Championship race held at Pukekohe Park Raceway. The race has been held intermittently since 1996
  • The Auckland Marathon (and half-marathon) is an annual marathon. It is the largest marathon in New Zealand and draws in the vicinity of 15,000 entrants. It has been held annually since 1992.
  • The Auckland Anniversary Regatta is a sailing regatta which has been held annually since 1840, the year of Auckland's founding. It is held over Auckland Anniversary weekend and attracts several hundred entrants each year. It is the largest such regatta, and the oldest sporting event, in New Zealand.
  • Auckland Cup Week is an annual horse racing carnival, which has been held in early March since its inception in 2006. It is the richest such carnival in New Zealand, and incorporates several of New Zealand's major thoroughbred horse races, including the Auckland Cup, held since 1874, and New Zealand Derby, held since 1875.
  • The Auckland Harbour Crossing Swim is an annual summer swimming event. The swim crosses the Waitematā Harbour, from the North Shore to the Viaduct Basin covering 2.8 km (often with some considerable counter-currents). The event has been held since 2004 and attracts over a thousand mostly amateur entrants each year, making it New Zealand's largest ocean swim.[73]
  • Round the Bays is an annual fun-run. The course travels eastwards along the Auckland waterfront, with the run starting in the CBD and ending in St Heliers, the total length being 8.4 kilometres (5.2 mi). It is the largest fun-run in New Zealand and attracts tens of thousands of entrants each year, with the number of entrants reported to have peaked at 80,000 in 1982. It has been held annually since 1972.[74]

Major events previously held in Auckland include the 1950 British Empire Games and the Commonwealth Games in 1990,[20] and a number of matches (including the semi-finals and the final) of the 1987 Rugby World Cup and 2011 Rugby World Cup.[75] Auckland hosted the America's Cup and Louis Vuitton Cup in 2000 and 2003, and is scheduled to host the 2021 America's Cup. The 2007 World Netball Championships were held at the Trusts Stadium. The ITU World Triathlon Series held a Grand Final event in the Auckland CBD from 2012 until 2015.[76] The NRL Auckland Nines was a rugby league nines preseason competition played at Eden Park from 2014 to 2017. The 2017 World Masters Games were held at a number of venues around Auckland.[77] The Auckland Darts Masters was held annually at The Trusts Arena from 2015 to 2018.

Auckland Culture and lifestyle articles: 155