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2022 KwaZulu-Natal floods

Flooding in South Africa

2022 KwaZulu-Natal floods
Rainfall totals recorded in Southern Africa between April 7 – 13, 2022.
DateApril 8 – 21, 2022
LocationSouth Africa (especially KwaZulu-Natal)
Deaths435 confirmed[1]
Property damage>R10 billion (US$656 million)

In April 2022, days of heavy rain across KwaZulu-Natal in southeastern South Africa led to deadly floods. Particularly hard-hit were areas in and around Durban. At least 435 people died across the province, with an unknown number of people missing as of April 21.[1] Several thousand homes were damaged or destroyed. Critical infrastructure, including major roads, transportation, communication, and electrical systems, were also impacted by the flooding, and this damage greatly hampered recovery and relief efforts. It is one of the deadliest natural disasters in the country in the 21st century, and the deadliest storm since the 1987 floods.[2][3] The floods have caused more than R10 billion (US$656 million) in infrastructure damage.[1] A national state of disaster was declared.[4]

Background and meteorological history

Subtropical Depression Issa on 13 April

Owing to the effects of La Niña, South Africa has seen above-average precipitation in 2022. In January, many regions experienced their heaviest rains since reliable records began in 1921.[5] Southern Africa as a whole experienced multiple devastating tropical cyclones and floods in the summer of 2021–22.[6]

Heavy rainfall began around April 8 and persisted for days.[7] By April 11, the cut-off low became established along the east coast of South Africa, with the South African Weather Service issuing a level 5 warning for the coast and adjacent interior of KwaZulu-Natal – which was subsequently changed to a level 8 and later a level 9 warning when the impact and scale of the rainfall was better understood.[8] The clockwise flow of the low pressure system brought warm, moist air from the subtropics toward the coast, resulting in heavy rain across KwaZulu-Natal.[8] The most intense precipitation fell in eThekwini, iLembe, and Ugu municipalities.[9] During the period of April 8-12, most of KwaZulu-Natal saw more than 50 mm (2.0 in) of rain, with coastal areas recording more than 200 mm (7.9 in). In a 24-hour period spanning April 11-12, Virginia Airport recorded 304 mm (12.0 in) of precipitation.[8] Areas along the coast of KwaZulu-Natal recorded 450 millimetres (18 in) of precipitation.[10]

On April 12, the low-pressure system was classified as a subtropical depression and designated Subtropical Depression Issa by Météo-France, due to its structure and presence of gale-force winds.[11] Following its southwestern trajectory along the South African coast and after reaching the northeastern coast of the Eastern Cape on the morning of April 13, the system turned northward, continuing back along the South African coast in a northeasterly direction before moving out to sea and further weakening.[12]

Impact

Diagram of Subtropical Depression Issa's path.

The torrential rains destroyed dozens of homes, washed away roads, and triggered mudslides. On April 13, it was announced that 59 people were killed across KwaZulu-Natal: 45 in eThekwini and 14 in iLembe.[13][14] Later that day, the number of reported deaths due to the flooding was increased to 450.[15] KwaZulu-Natal Premier Sihle Zikalala stated at least 2,000 homes and 4,000 shanty homes were damaged or destroyed.[13] On April 21, the death toll was revised downward to 435 after several deaths were discovered to be the result of murder and natural causes.[1] Five people were killed in a shantytown near Clare Estate. A woman and three children were killed in Tongaat when their car was swept away by a swollen river. Two people died in Verulam when their home collapsed.[6]

Communication

Damage occurred to the province's mobile phone infrastructure.[16] Vodacom reported 400 towers impacted mostly by electricity outages, flooding and issues with flooded fibre conduiting.[16] MTN claimed 500 sites were affected by flooding and power outages.[16]

Education

Kwazi Mshengu, Member of the Executive Council (MEC) for Education in KZN announced that close to 300 rural and urban schools had been damaged in the storm.[17] The department was still trying to repair damage to schools that had occurred in December 2021.[17] Approximately 100 schools were damaged and 500 were closed throughout the province.[6]

Energy and water

A hydroelectric dam operated by Eskom was overwhelmed by rising waters, rendering it inoperable.[14] Eskom CEO Andre de Ruyter announced on April 12 that rolling blackouts would occur that evening due to issues in the network caused by the excessive rains.[18] At their Drakensberg Pumped Storage Scheme facility, excessive debris on grids protecting the turbines needed clearing and on the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme, both upper and lower dams were at full capacity and emptying the upper dam could result in flooding.[18] Other issues in KwaZulu Natal were downed power lines and flooded substations.[18]

Umgeni Water, the supplier of water to Durban and KZN, announced that two feeder lines were broken and these two aqueducts supplied water to the Durban Heights reservoir.[19] Repairs were taking place.[19] Water tankers were being used to supply areas without water supplies.[19]

Infrastructure

Damage to infrastructure hampered relief efforts.[7] Aerial support was requested from the South African National Defence Force to assist in recovery.[14] Some looting of damaged shipping containers was reported at the Transnet port.[13] The coastal N2 Highway suffered several washouts, with bridges destroyed. Southbound lanes of the N3 Highway, which connects Durban and Johannesburg, were closed due to flooding and debris.[5] By April 13, trucks were backlogged on the N3 South from the Marrian Hill Plaza back 10 km to Hammarsdale with minor looting taking place as they were unable to enter the port in Durban.[20]

Transnet suspended port operations in Durban.[14] This occurred in the early evening of April 11, and a command centre made up of Transnet, customers and operators were set up to monitor activities at the port.[21] The heavy rains then damaged the roads leading into the port and on the N3 leading to the city.[21] Shipping into the port had also been suspended.[21] Freight transport companies were told not to send transport cargo to Durban.[21] At the Port of Richards Bay, terminals were operating but in a limited capacity.[21]

Sappi closed three paper mills at Saiccor, Tugela and Stanger, leaving only two others functioning.[22] A Pepkor distribution centre in Durban was closed due to flooding leaving two others in Johannesburg and Cape Town to assist the supply chain.[22] The Amanzimtoti, Umbilo and Umgeni topped their banks, inundating surrounding communities.[7] Shanty towns constructed along the banks of these rivers saw extensive damage.[6] Extensive damage to Bayhead Road, the main access to fuel depots caused numerous petrol stations in KwaZulu-Natal to be without fuel. Major oil companies have also suspended all operations.[23]

Aftermath

On April 12, after a late emergency meeting of the KwaZulu-Natal provincial executive council, Premier Sihle Zikalala called for a declaration of emergency by the State so his province can access emergency funding.[24] President Cyril Ramaphosa, attending a three day summit of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in Maputo, cut short his trip and returned to KwaZulu Natal on April 13.[24] President Cyril Ramaphosa visited families and local residents affected by the storm and floods in Lindelani, Ntuzuma, eMaoti and uMzinyathi.[25] He was accompanied by KZN Premier Zikalala and Co-operative Governance and Traditional Affairs Minister Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma as well as various mayors and provincial ministers.[25]

On April 13, a provincial state of disaster was declared in KwaZulu-Natal by the National Disaster Management Centre, specifically referencing the loss of life and damage to property, infrastructure, and the environment as reasons for the declaration.[26]

Early assessments of the damage to the provincial roads in KwaZulu-Natal worth R5.7 billion were announced by transport minister Fikile Mbalula on April 15.[27] In other assessments, the KZN Human Settlements Minister Mmamoloko Kubayi announced that 13,500 households had been affected by the storm, with over 3,927 houses destroyed and another 8,097 partly destroyed.[27] R1 billion would be used to repair buildings and build temporary shelters.[27]

Due to the heavy rain, communities downstream from two dams in KZN have been warned on April 19 about possible flooding as the dams had reached more than 80% capacity.[28] Water was being released from the Ntshingwayo and Pongolapoort dams to reduce the capacities.[28]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Death toll from South African floods revised down to 435". Reuters. 21 April 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  2. ^ France-Presse, Agence (13 April 2022). "South Africa floods: deadliest storm on record kills over 300 people". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  3. ^ Burke, Jason (14 April 2022). "South Africa braces for more heavy rain after floods kill hundreds". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  4. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: Declaration of a national state of disaster to respond to widespread flooding | South African Government". www.gov.za. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b Cele, S'thembile; Njini, Felix (12 April 2022). "Floods Wash Away Bridges, Close Routes to Key South African Port". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d Chutel, Lynsey (12 April 2022). "Heavy Floods and Mudslides Leave at Least 45 Dead in South Africa". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  7. ^ a b c Erasmus, Des (12 April 2022). "Death toll mounts as KZN sinks beneath torrential rains, floods amid decimated infrastructure". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  8. ^ a b c South Africa Weather Service [@SAWeatherServic] (12 April 2022). "MEDIA RELEASE: (12 April 2022) Extreme rainfall and widespread flooding overnight: KwaZulu-Natal and parts of Eastern Cape" (Tweet). Retrieved 12 April 2022 – via Twitter.
  9. ^ South Africa Weather Service [@SAWeatherServic] (11 April 2022). "Orange level 8 warning: Rain: KZN: 11 – 12 April 2022" (Tweet). Retrieved 12 April 2022 – via Twitter.
  10. ^ McKenzie, David; Madowo, Larry; Alberti, Mia; Dewan, Angela. "Over 300 killed after flooding washed away roads, destroyed homes in South Africa". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  11. ^ "Warning Number: 1/11/20212022: Subtropical Depression 11 (ISSA)" (PDF). 11 April 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  12. ^ "Warning Number: 5/11/20212022: Subtropical Depression 11 (ISSA)" (PDF). 13 April 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  13. ^ a b c "Nearly 60 dead in South Africa floods". CNA. 13 April 2022. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  14. ^ a b c d Kumwenda-Mtambo, Olivia; Mukherjee, Promit (12 April 2022). "Heavy rains claim 45 lives in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  15. ^ "Death Toll Due to Kwazulu-Natal's Devastating Floods Hits 253". Eyewitness News. 13 April 2022. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  16. ^ a b c Mboto, Sibusiso; Singh, Karen; Pillay, Yogashen (13 April 2022). "Rains, mudslides claim lives in KZN". The Mercury. p. 1.
  17. ^ a b Nxumalo, Lethu (17 April 2022). "No assistance from the education department". Sunday Tribune. p. 4.
  18. ^ a b c Lekabe, Thapelo (13 April 2022). "Eskom blames rain again". The Citizen. p. 2.
  19. ^ a b c "City working to restore water supply, electricity". The Mercury. 14 April 2022. p. 3.
  20. ^ Papayya, Mary (14 April 2022). "Bereaved look for Ramaphosa's help". Business Day. pp. 1–2.
  21. ^ a b c d e Pillay, Yogashen; Magubane, Thami (13 April 2022). "Port operations affected as major damage caused to Durban road networks". The Mercury. p. 1. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022.
  22. ^ a b Child, Katherine; Gous, Nico (14 April 2022). "KZN floods hit Sappi mills, Pepkor and insurance shares". Business Day. p. 9.
  23. ^ "No petrol in KZN as major oil companies suspend all operations". The South African. 15 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  24. ^ a b Papayya, Mary; Omarjee, Hajra (13 April 2022). "Premier Sihle Zikalala calls for state of disaster for devastated KwaZulu-Natal". Business Day. p. 1. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  25. ^ a b Mboto, Sibusiso (14 April 2022). "KZN flood death toll rises to 259". The Mercury. p. 1.
  26. ^ "Disaster Management Act: Classification of a provincial disaster in KwaZulu-Natal: Impact of severe weather events" (PDF). South African Government. 13 April 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  27. ^ a b c Manyane, Manyane (17 April 2022). "Response to floods slammed". Sunday Independent. pp. 1–2.
  28. ^ a b Montsho, Molaole. "Two KZN dams on watch following floods". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 20 April 2022.