1986 in comics
Comics-related events during 1986
- 1 Events and publications
- 2 Deaths
- 3 Exhibitions and shows
- 4 Conventions
- 5 Awards
- 6 First issues by title
- 7 Initial appearances by character name
- 8 References
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Notable events of 1986 in comics. See also List of years in comics.
Overview of "List of years in comics" article
Events and publications
- Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, a four-issue limited series written and drawn by Frank Miller and published by DC Comics, debuts. It reintroduces Batman to the general public as the psychologically dark character of his original 1930s conception, and helps to usher in an era of "grim and gritty" superheroes from the mid-1980s to mid-1990s.
- Watchmen, a twelve-issue limited series written by Alan Moore, illustrated by Dave Gibbons and published by DC Comics, debuts. To date, Watchmen remains the only graphic novel to win a Hugo Award, and is also the only graphic novel to appear on Time's 2005 list of "the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to the present."
- The first volume of Maus, written and drawn by Art Spiegelman debuts. Maus is a biography, presented in comics form, of Spiegelman's father, Vladek Spiegelman, a survivor of the Nazi Holocaust. Spiegelman was awarded a 1992 Pulitzer Prize Special Award for Maus shortly after its completion in 1991.
- A plethora of new independent publishers enter the comics arena, including ACE Comics, Adventure Publications, Apple Comics, Crystal Publications, Dark Horse Comics, Eternity Comics, Fantagor Press, Gladstone Comics, Malibu Comics, Pied Piper Comics, Silverwolf Comics, Slave Labor Graphics, Solson Publications, and Spotlight Comics. Conversely, Lodestone Comics, New Sirius Productions, and Sirius Comics all go out of business.
- The Man of Steel, a six-issue comic book limited series written and penciled by John Byrne, inked by Dick Giordano and published by DC Comics, debuts. The mini-series is designed to revamp the Superman mythos, using the history-altering effects of Crisis on Infinite Earths as an explanation for numerous changes to previous continuity.
- The "Born Again" story arc runs in Marvel Comics' Daredevil (issues #227 to #233), written by Frank Miller and drawn by David Mazzucchelli.
- The "Mutant Massacre" crossover storyline runs through Marvel Comics in the fall. It primarily involves the superhero teams the X-Men, X-Factor, and the New Mutants. Power Pack, Thor, and Daredevil cross over for an issue in their own titles.
- Captain Confederacy, created by Will Shetterly and Vince Stone, debuts, published by SteelDragon Press. It will run 12 issues.
- DC publishes Heroes Against Hunger starring Superman and Batman, an all-star benefit book for African famine relief and recovery.
- Marvel Super Special, with issue #41, about Howard the Duck, is cancelled by Marvel Comics.
- André Franquin and Jean-François Moyersoen establish Marsu Productions.
- January 20: The final episode of Marten Toonder's Tom Poes is published. Olivier B. Bommel marries Annemarie Doddeltje, while Tom Poes leaves and roams the Earth.
- With issue #323, DC cancels World's Finest Comics.
- The French publisher Delcourt enters the marketplace, cancelling the comics magazine Charlie Mensuel and merging its contents with Pilote magazine.
- With issue #329, DC cancels Wonder Woman.
- With issue #152, Marvel cancels The Defenders.
- With issue #75, Marvel cancels ROM.
- With issue #34, Marvel cancels Epic Illustrated.
- March 22–13 April: The first annual comics festival of Knokke, Belgium (Stripfestival Knokke, nowadays Stripfestival Middelkerke), is organized.
- Wonder Man #1 one-shot, by David Michelinie, Kerry Gammill, and Vince Colletta; published by Marvel Comics.
- Broadside, a comic strip by Jeff Bacon, begins appearing in the Navy Times. 
- The Enchanted Apples of Oz, First Graphic Novel #5, by Eric Shanower (First Comics).
- With issue #106, Archie Comics cancels Archie's TV Laugh-Out.
- With issue #71, DC Comics cancels The Best of DC
- April 10: Metalzoic (DC Graphic Novel #6), by Pat Mills and Kevin O'Neill, published by DC Comics.
- Daniel Clowes's Lloyd Llewellyn makes its debut.
- Green Lantern #200: "Five Billion Years," by Steve Englehart, Joe Staton, and Bruce D. Patterson. (DC Comics)
- The Incredible Hulk #319: Bruce Banner marries Betty Ross. (Marvel Comics)
- With issue #20, Marvel cancels Micronauts: The New Voyages.
- With issue #201, DC changes the title of the Green Lantern comic book to The Green Lantern Corps.
- The Thing, with issue #36, is cancelled by Marvel.
- July 2: Dick Matena wins the Stripschapprijs. Hans van den Boom receives the P. Hans Frankfurtherprijs.
- Dark Horse Comics makes its debut as a publisher with the anthology Dark Horse Presents #1.
- Hawkman Special (DC Comics), by Tony Isabella, Richard Howell, and Ron Randall.
- With issue #107, Marvel cancels its Star Wars comic.
- Aristocratic Xtraterrestrial Time-Traveling Thieves "Micro Series" #1 (Comics Interview), by Henry Vogel and Mark Propst.
- Alan Moore, Dave Gibbons and John Higgins' Watchmen is first published.
- "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?," a two-part Superman story, appears in Superman #423 and Action Comics #583. Written by Alan Moore, with art by Curt Swan, George Pérez, and Kurt Schaffenberger; published by DC Comics.
- DC suspends publication of Superman; in 1987 the title relaunches as The Adventures of Superman (continuing the numbering of Superman).
- DC suspends publication of Action Comics (until January 1987) to allow for the publication of John Byrne's The Man of Steel limited series and Byrne's revamp of the Superman character/franchise.
- With issue #97, DC cancels DC Comics Presents.
- Power Man and Iron Fist, with issue #125, is cancelled by Marvel.
- September 27: Warlord, with issue #627, is merged with Victor (D.C. Thomson).
- October 4:
- October 18: The Dutch comics store Lambiek in Amsterdam opens their art gallery. The first exhibition centers around the comics magazine RAW. In the following years the store will host several other exhibitions, inviting national and international comics artists over to exhibit their drawings and sign their work. It will make the store internationally famous in comics circles.
- Marvel Comics launches the New Universe, an imprint created in celebration of Marvel's 25th anniversary. Comics published by New Universe are in a distinctly separate world, fully divorced from the mainstream continuity of the Marvel Universe, consisting of its own continuing characters and stories in a more realistic setting. The New Universe's first titles are Spitfire and The Troubleshooters and Star Brand.
- Batman #400: 68-page anniversary issue, "Resurrection Night," by Doug Moench and an all-star roster of artists, including Bill Sienkiewicz, John Byrne, George Pérez, Art Adams, and Brian Bolland. (DC Comics)
- November 3: Ralph Dunagin and Dana Summers' The Middletons makes its debut.
- Hergé's widow, Fanny Rodwell, disestablishes Studio Hergé and replaces it a year later by the Hergé Foundation, aka Moulinsart.
- Marvel's New Universe imprint launches six more titles: D.P. 7, Justice, Kickers, Inc., Mark Hazzard: Merc, Nightmask, and Psi-Force.
- DC Comics begins publishing "Legends," a crossover storyline that runs through a six-issue, self-titled limited series and various other DC titles published (22 chapters in all) in 1986 and 1987.
- Blue Devil, with issue #31, is canceled by DC Comics
- With issue #15, Comico publishes the final issue of Matt Wagner's Mage: The Hero Discovered
- Amazing High Adventure, with issue #5, publishes its final issue. (Marvel Comics)
- Chester Brown's Yummy Fur begins professional publication by Vortex Comics
- January 6: George Sixta, American comics artist (Dick Draper, Foreign Correspondent, Rivets), dies at age 74.
- January 10: Marvin Bradley, American comics artist (Rex Morgan, M.D.), passes away at the age of 72.
- January 11: Kazuo Kamimura, Japanese manga artist (Lady Snowblood), dies at the age of 45 from a pharynx tumor.
- January 15: Alfred Bestall, British comics artist (continued Rupert Bear), dies at age 93.
- January 23: Frank Grundeen, American animator and comics artist (continued the Donald Duck newspaper comic strip), dies at age 74.
- January 28: Allen Saunders, American journalist, writer and comics writer (Steve Roper and Mike Nomad, Mary Worth, Kerry Drake), dies at age 86.
- February 21: Derek Chittock, aka Droc, aka Lucian, British art critic, painter and cartoonist (Bennie, Barley Bottom), dies at age 64.
- February 22: Ernest Shaw, British comics artist (The Gay Goblins, Mr. and Mrs. Dillwater, Dr. Gnome of Gnomansland, The Dingbats), dies at the age of 95.
- March 4: Maurice Julhès, French illustrator and comics artist (Monsieur Lezognard), dies at age 89.
- March 19: Stephen P. Dowling, British comics artist (Garth, Ruggles, Belinda), passes away at the age of 82, coincidentally his birthday.
- Specific date unknown: Unk White, Australian comics artist, illustrator and painter (Freckles), dies at age 85 or 86.
- April 2: Jack Manning, American comics artist and animator (Disney comics, Looney Tunes comics, Hanna-Barbera comics), dies at age 65.
- April 16: John Churchill Chase, American comics artist and historian (Louisiana Purchase, We The People), dies at age 80 or 81.
- April 22: Dick Moores, American comics artist and animator (Jim Hardy, Scamp, worked on Dick Tracy, Disney comics, continued Gasoline Alley), dies at age 75.
- April: Stefano Tamburini, Italian comics writer (RanXerox) dies from a drug overdose at the age of 40 or 41.
- May 15: Virginia Krausmann, American comics artist (continued Annibelle, Marianne), dies at age 73.
- June 21: Gaston Martineau, aka Aldé, French journalist, writer and comics artist (Mistouflet), dies at age 61.
- June 23:
- September 4: Edd Ashe, American illustrator and comics artist (continued Don Winslow of the Navy), dies at age 78. 
- October 4: Mike Butterworth, British comics writer (Wulf the Briton, The Trigan Empire, Storm), passes away at age 62.
- October 10: Frank O'Neal, American comics artist (Short Ribs), dies at age 64.
- October 11: David Hand, American animator and film director (Walt Disney Company, Gaumont), dies at age 86.
- October 22: Bert Hill, British comics artist (Charlie Chuckle, Barnacle Ben, the Breezy Buccaneer, Freddie Freewheel the Tramp Cyclist, Sammy Spry, Frolics in the Far West, Tommy Trot the Tudor Tramp, Harry Coe, P.C. Copperclock the Desert Cop, Willie Scribble the Pavement Artist, Lil and Lena), dies at age 84.
- November 19: Klaus Nordling, Finnish-American comics artist (Thin Man), dies at age 86.
- November 23: Norman Maurer, American comics artist, animator, screenwriter, film producer and animated film producer (Mighty Mouse comics, celebrity comics about The Three Stooges), dies at age 60 from cancer.
- November 23: Frank Smith, American animator and comics artist (continued the Donald Duck newspaper comic, made Hanna-Barbera comics and a comic strip based on W.C. Fields), passes away at the age of 78.
- November 24: Al Smith, American comics artist (continued Mutt and Jeff) and founder of Al Smith Feature Service, dies at age 84.
- November 27: Colin Dawkins, American comics writer (EC Comics), dies at age 64.
- December 6: August Lenox, American painter and comics artist (Walt Disney's True Life Adventure Comics), dies at age 77 or 78.
- December 19: Frank Sels, Belgian comics artist (Zilverpijl (aka Silbertpfeil), assisted Willy Vandersteen and Karel Verschuere), commits suicide at age 44. 
- December 24: Gardner Fox, American comics writer (The Flash, Hawkman, The Justice League), dies at age 75.
- Specific date in December unknown: Paul Frehm, American comics artist (continued Ripley's Believe It or Not!), dies at age 82. 
Specific date unknown
- Joaquin Blázquez, Spanish comics artist, painter and sculptor dies at age 39 or 40. 
- Les Callan, Canadian cartoonist and comics artist (Monty and Johnny), dies at age 80 or 81.
- Joe Certa, American comics artist (Martian Manhunter, Zook, continued Joe Palooka), dies at age 66 or 67.
- Edgardo Dell'Acqua, Italian comics artist (Gim Toro), passes away at age 63 or 64.
- Renaat Demoen, Belgian comics artist and illustrator (Zonneland), dies at the age of 71 or 72.
- Zvonimir Furtinger, Croatian comics writer (Herlock Sholmes), dies at age 83 or 84.
- Ed Kressy, American comics artist (The Lone Ranger), dies at age 84.
- Bernard Segal, American painter and comics artist (Honey and Hank aka Elsworth), dies at age 78 or 79.
Exhibitions and shows
- July 15-November 16: Jewish Museum, New York City — "Jewish Themes / Contemporary American Artists II", featuring original drawings and sketches from Art Spiegelman's Maus
- April 11–13: 2nd Annual Victoria International Cartoon Festival (Victoria, British Columbia, Canada)
- May 31–June 1: Birmingham Comic Art Show (Motorcycle Museum, NEC, Birmingham, England) — presentation of the Eagle Awards
- July 4–6: Chicago Comicon (Ramada O'Hare Hotel, Rosemont, Illinois) — 5,000 attendees; official guests: Stan Lee (guest of honor), George Pérez (special guest), Doug Wildey
- July 4–6: Dallas Fantasy Fair I (Dallas Marriott Park Central, Dallas, Texas) — guests include Dave Stevens, Gary Groth, Pat Broderick, Will Eisner, Mike Gustovich, Burne Hogarth, Gil Kane, Jack Kirby, Joe Kubert, William Messner-Loebs, Frank Miller, Jean Giraud, Doug Moench, Richard Pini, Dave Sim, Donald Simpson, Alex Toth, Doug Wildey, Neal Barrett, Jr., David A. Cherry, Carole Nelson Douglas, George R.R. Martin, Ardath Mayhar, Warren Norwood, Frederik Pohl, Kay Reynolds, Fred Saberhagen, Lewis Shiner, John Steakley, Howard Waldrop, Jack Williamson, Philip José Farmer, Roger Zelazny
- July 19–20: Creation Philadelphia (Centre Hotel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) — guests include John Romita, Jr. and Archie Goodwin
- July 31–August 3: San Diego Comic-Con (Convention and Performing Arts Center and Hotel San Diego, California) — 6,500 attendees; official guests: Poul Anderson, Marion Zimmer Bradley, Greg Evans, Stan Lee, Dale Messick, Frank Miller, Moebius, Mart Nodell, Harvey Pekar, Jim Valentino, and Doug Wildey
- August 2–4: Atlanta Fantasy Fair (Omni Hotel and Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, Georgia) — 5,000 attendees; comics guests include Chris Claremont, Denny O'Neil, Stan Lee, Ralph Bakshi, Matt Feazell, Kelly Freas, Dave Gibbons, Greg Hildebrandt, Jim Starlin, John Romita, Sr., Boris Vallejo, and Bob Burden; science fiction/fantasy writers include Robert Asprin, John Varley, Brad Strickland, and Diane Duane; media guests include Carl Macek, Don Kennedy, and Steve Jackson of Steve Jackson Games
- August 9–10: Creation Los Angeles (Hyatt Hotel, Los Angeles, California) — guests include John Romita, Jr. and Terry Austin
- August 9–10: King Kon (Dearborn Civic Center, Dearborn, MI): guests include Ron Frenz, Al Milgrom, William Messner-Loebs, and Max Allan Collins; participating publishers include Marvel, DC, Arrow Comics, Stabur Graphics, and Vortex Comics; c. 2,500 attendees
- August 22–23: Comix Fair (Brookhollow Marriott, Houston, Texas) — guests include Gary Groth, Gil Kane, Joe Pumilia, Jeff Millar, Bill Hinds, and Doug Potter
- August 23–24: Creation Manhattan (Roosevelt Hotel, New York City) — special tribute to Marvel Comics' 25th anniversary; guests include Stan Lee and Jim Shooter
- August 23–24: Creation San Francisco (Holiday Inn Golden Gateway, San Francisco, California)
- September 6–7: Creation Washington, D.C. (Marriott Twin Bridges Hotel, Arlington, Virginia)
- September 20–21: Creation New Jersey (Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick, New Jersey)
- September 20–21: UKCAC (University of London Union, Malet Street, London, England) — guests include Bill Marks, Seth Motter, Dean Motter, David Lloyd, Frank Miller, Lynn Varley, Steve Leialoha, Lew Stringer, Glen Fabry, Gil Kane, John Bolton, Karen Berger, Alan Moore, Jenette Kahn, Dave Gibbons, Kevin O'Neill, Brett Ewins, Carl Potts, Alan Grant, Barry Windsor-Smith, Bryan Talbot, Bill Sienkiewicz, and Chris Claremont
- November 8–9: Mid-Ohio Con (Richland County Fairgrounds, Mansfield, Ohio) — guests of honor: Frank Miller, John Byrne, Stephen R. Bissette, John Totleben, and Bill Sienkiewicz
- November 14–16: Dallas Fantasy Fair II (Dallas Marriott Park Central, Dallas, Texas) — celebration of the 25th anniversary of Marvel Comics; guests include Stan Lee
Presented in 1987 for comics published in 1986:
- Favourite Comic: Swamp Thing, written by Alan Moore (DC)
- Favourite New Title: Watchmen, written by Alan Moore (DC)
- Favourite Finite Series: Crisis on Infinite Earths, by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez (DC Comics)
- Favourite Graphic Novel: Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (DC)
- Favourite Single or Continued Story: Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (DC)
- Favourite Comic Cover: Batman: The Dark Knight Returns #1, by Frank Miller and Lynn Varley
- Favourite Group or Team: The X-Men
- Favourite Character: Batman
- Favourite Supporting Character: John Constantine, from Swamp Thing (DC)
- Favourite Character Worthy of Own Title: Wolverine
- Favourite Villain: The Joker
- Favourite Writer: Alan Moore
- Favourite Artist: Frank Miller
- Favourite Inker: Terry Austin
- Favourite Specialist Comics Publication: Amazing Heroes
- Favourite Artist: Alan Davis
- Favourite Writer: Alan Moore
- Favourite Comic: 2000 AD (IPC)
- Favourite Comic Album: D.R. & Quinch's Totally Awesome Guide to Life, written by Alan Moore
- Favourite Character: Judge Dredd, from 2000 AD
- Favourite Villain: Torquemada, from 2000 AD
- Favourite Supporting Character: Ukko the Dwarf (from Sláine)
- Character Most Worthy of Own Title: Captain Britain
- Favourite Single or Continued Story: Halo Jones Three, written by Alan Moore
- Favourite New Title: Redfox (Harrier Comics)
- Favourite Comic Cover: 2000 AD #500
- Favourite Specialist Comics Publication: Speakeasy
- Roll of Honour:
- Best Single Issue: "Apocalypse," Daredevil #227, by Frank Miller and David Mazzucchelli (Marvel Comics)
- Best Continuing Series: Swamp Thing, by Alan Moore, Steve Bissette, and John Totleben (DC Comics)
- Best Black & White Series: Love and Rockets by Gilbert Hernandez and Jaime Hernandez (Fantagraphics)
- Best Finite Series: Crisis on Infinite Earths, by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez (DC)
- Best New Series: Miracleman, by Alan Moore and various artists (Eclipse Comics)
- Best Graphic Album: The Rocketeer, by Dave Stevens (Eclipse)
- Best Artist: Steve Rude, for Nexus (First Comics)
- Best Writer: Alan Moore, for Swamp Thing (DC)
- Best Writer/Artist (single or team): Frank Miller and David Mazzucchelli, for Daredevil (Marvel)
- Best Art Team: George Pérez and Jerry Ordway, for Crisis On Infinite Earths (DC)
1986 in comics Events and publications articles: 49
First issues by title
- Release: August. Writer/Artist: Barbara Slate.
- Release: April. Editor: Roy Thomas.
Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (4 issues)
- Release: February. Writer/Artist: Frank Miller.
Cosmic Boy (4 issues)
Legends (6 issues)
The Man of Steel (6 issues)
- Release: July. Writer/Artist: John Byrne.
Watchmen (12 issues)
Les Femmes en Blanc (32 volumes)
- Release: October
- Release: September. Editor: Ann Nocenti.
- Release: October. Writers: Eliot R. Brown, John Morelli, and Gerry Conway. Artists: Herb Trimpe, Joe Sinnott, and Tom Morgan.
Dakota North (5 issues)
- Release: November. Writer: Martha Thomases. Artist: Tony Salmons.
Elektra: Assassin (8 issues)
The Punisher (5 issues)
Steelgrip Starkey (6 issues)
- Release: October by First Comics. Writer: Roy Thomas. Artists: Michael T. Gilbert and George Freeman.
- Release: June by Blackthorne Publishing. Writer/Artist: Dwayne Ferguson.
- Release: February by ¡Ka-Boom! Estudio. Writer/Artist: Oscar González Loyo.
- Release: October by Solson Publications: Writer: Monroe Arnold. Artists: Dick Ayers and Rich Buckler.
1986 in comics First issues by title articles: 148
Initial appearances by character name
- Bad Samaritan, in The Outsiders #03, (January)
- Booster Gold, in Booster Gold #01 (February)
- Brimstone, in Legends #01 (November)
- Duke of Oil, in The Outsiders #06 (April)
- Film Freak, in Batman #395 (May)
- Hybrid, in New Teen Titans #24 (October)
- Carrie Kelley, in Batman: The Dark Knight Returns #01 (February)
- Kilowog, in Green Lantern Corps # 201 (June)
- Prometheus, in New Teen Titans #24 (October)
- Skeets, in Booster Gold #1 (February)
- Sodam Yat, in Tales of the Green Lantern Corps Annual #02 (December)
- Amanda Waller, in Legends #01 in (November)
- Vigilante (Dave Winston), in Vigilante #28 (April)
- Charles Victor Szasz in Blue Beetle #04 (September)
- Crimebusters, in Watchmen #02 (October)
- Minutemen, in Watchmen #02 (October)
- Captain Metropolis, in Watchmen #01 (September)
- Dollar Bill, in Watchmen #02 (October)
- Hooded Justice, in Watchmen #01 (September)
- Mothman, in Watchmen #02 (October)
- Nite Owl (Hollis Mason), in Watchmen #01 (September)
- Silhouette, in Watchmen #02 (October)
- Silk Spectre (Sally Juspeczyk), in Watchmen #01 (September)
- Bubastis in Watchmen #01 (September)
- Moloch The Mystic in Watchmen #02 (October)
- Magpie in The Man of Steel #03 (November)
- Michelle Carter in Booster Gold #06 (July)
- Ranx the Sentient City in Tales of the Green Lantern Corps Annual #02 (December)
- Icemaiden in Infinity Inc. #32 (November)
- Kelex in The Man of Steel #01 (October)
- Twister in New Teen Titans #26 (December)
- Captain Triumph in History of the DC Universe #01
- Owlwoman in Crisis on Infinite Earths #12 (March)
- Apocalypse, in X-Factor #5 (June)
- Berzerker, in X-Factor #11 (December)
- Eddie Brock, in Web of Spider-Man #18 (September )
- Chance, in Web of Spider-Man #15 (June)
- Rusty Collins, in X-Factor #1 (February)
- Dakota North, in Dakota North #1 (June)
- Foreigner, in Web of Spider-Man #15 (June)
- Cameron Hodge, in X-Factor #1 (February)
- Artie Maddicks, in X-Factor #2 (March)
- Marauders, in Uncanny X-Men #210 (October)
- Mayhem, in Cloak and Dagger Vol. 2 #5 (March)
- Nuke, in Daredevil #232 (May)
- Persuasion, in Alpha Flight #41 (December)
- Prism, in X-Factor #10 (November)
- Sinister Syndicate, in The Amazing Spider-Man #280 (September)
- Skids, in X-Factor vol. #7 (August)
- Solo, in Web of Spider-Man #19 (October)
- Time Variance Authority, in Thor vol. 1 #372 (October)
- Tollbooth, in G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero #51 (September)
- U.S. Agent, in Captain America #323 (November)
- Concrete, in Dark Horse Presents #1 (July, Dark Horse)
- Shojun the Warlord, in 2000 AD #451 (IPC Media)
- Manning, Matthew K. (2010). "1980s". In Dolan, Hannah (ed.). DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
It was what many consider the greatest year in comics. DC debuted two of the industry's most influential works: Frank Miller supplied a gritty take on super-heroes with Batman: The Dark Knight, while writer Alan Moore brought a literary ear and sophisticated structure to DC's comics with the maxiseries Watchmen.
- "AwardWeb: Hugo Award Winners" Archived 2014-02-09 at the Wayback Machine - Watchmen listed as a winner of the Hugo Award (retrieved 20 April 2006)
- "Time Magazine - ALL-TIME 100 Novels" – A synopsis describing Watchmen (retrieved 14 April 2006)
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 221: "In the six-issue miniseries entitled [The] Man of Steel, the mammoth task of remaking Superman fell to popular writer/artist John Byrne...The result was an overwhelming success, popular with fans both old and new."
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 219: "Plotted by Jim Starlin, with dramatic designs by Bernie Wrightson...Heroes Against Hunger featured nearly every popular DC creator of the time."
- "Marten Toonder". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Vlaanderen. Jaargang 35 · dbnl". DBNL. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Leidse Courant | 2 juli 1986 | pagina 8". Historische Kranten, Erfgoed Leiden en Omstreken. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- Watchmen (DC, 1986 series) at the Grand Comics Database.
- Grossey, Ronald (20 December 2013). Bob de Moor: De klare lijn en de golven; een biografie. ISBN 9789460012433.
- "The History of Lambiek (1986-1989)".
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 221: "Batman celebrated the 400th issue of his self-titled comic with a blockbuster featuring dozens of famous comic book creators and nearly as many infamous villains. Written by Doug Moench, with an introduction by novelist Stephen King...[it was] drawn by George Pérez, Bill Sienkiewicz, Arthur Adams, Joe Kubert, Brian Bolland, and others."
- "Ralph Dunagin". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Dana Summers". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Moulinsart | Tintin". Apr 30, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-04-30. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 221 "DC's next big crossover showcased John Byrne's pencils on all six of the miniseries' issues. Entitled Legends, this new limited series was plotted by writer John Ostrander and scripted by Len Wein...By the series' end, the stage was set for several new ongoing titles, including...the Suicide Squad, as well as the Justice League."
- "George Sixta". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Marvin Bradley". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2017-01-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Kazuo Kamimura". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Alfred Bestall". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Frank Grundeen". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Derek Chittock". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Ernest Shaw". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Maurice Julhès". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Stephen P. Dowling". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Unk White". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Jack Manning". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "John Chase". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Dick Moores". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Virginia Krausmann". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Aldé". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Lex Metz". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Bela Szepes". lambiek.net. Retrieved November 26, 2020.
- "Floyd Gottfredson". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Edd Ashe". lambiek.net. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
- "Frank O'Neal". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Bert Hill (I)". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Klaus Nordling". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Norman Maurer". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Frank Smith". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Al Smith". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- Comic Book Database: Colin Dawkins
- "August Lenox". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Frank Sels". lambiek.net. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
- "Gardner Fox". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Paul Frehm". lambiek.net. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
- "Joaquin Blázquez". lambiek.net. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- "Les Callan". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Joe Certa". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Edgardo Dell'Acqua". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
- "Renaat Demoen". lambiek.net. Retrieved Jul 31, 2020.
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