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1912 Republic of China National Assembly election

Top 3 1912 Republic of China National Assembly election related articles

1912 Republic of China National Assembly elections

← 1909 December 1912 − January 1913 1918 →

All 870 seats in the National Assembly
(274 seats in the Senate and 596 seats in the House of Representatives)
  First party Second party
 
Leader Song Jiaoren Li Yuanhong
Party Nationalist Republican
Senate 132 46
House 269 120

  Third party Fourth party
 
Leader Zhang Binglin Tang Hualong
Party Unity Democratic
Senate 6 8
House 18 16

Premier before election

Zhao Bingjun
Nonpartisan

Elected Premier

Zhao Bingjun
Nonpartisan

The 1912 Republic of China National Assembly elections, held in December 1912 to January 1913, were the first elections for the new founded Republic of China Senate and House of Representatives.

1912 Republic of China National Assembly election Intro articles: 1

Overview

The poll was indirect as voters chose some 30,000 electors who chose about 2,000 members of the provincial assemblies and 596 members of the House of Representatives. This system caused instances of bribery.

The 274-member Senate was elected by the provincial assemblies which had themselves been elected in 1909 during the Qing dynasty.

Adult males over the age of 21, who were educated or owned property and paid taxes, and who could prove two-year residency in a particular county could vote.[1] An estimated 40 million, 4-6% of China's population were registered for the election.[2] This is an increase from the size of the electorate in the 1909 Chinese provincial elections, when less than 1% of the population was enfranchised.

The president had to pick the 64 members representing Tibet, Outer Mongolia, and Overseas Chinese due to the fact that the government in Beijing did not exercise enough control over these populations to organize elections.

Despite the compromises, this election had the participation of over 300 civic groups and was the first and most competitive nationwide election in Chinese history.

The Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) led by Song Jiaoren won a plurality in both houses of the assembly and expected to become the Premier.[2] After losing the election, the Republican, Unity, and Democratic (formerly Constitutionalist) parties merged into the Progressive Party with Liang Qichao as leader. The Progressive Party became the main rival to the Nationalists.

Song was assassinated on 20 March 1913. When the assembly convened for the first time on April 8 amid heated debate over the assassination, the Nationalists were divided over solutions on how to deal with Yuan Shikai, the provisional president who was suspected of the crime. On 12 July, Sun Yat-sen led a faction into rebellion against Yuan. However, the Second Revolution but was completely defeated within two months.

The National Assembly members were compromised by threats and bribes from Yuan. He confined them and forced them to elect him formal president in the October presidential election. Next, he outlawed the Nationalists and expelled them from the assembly. Without a quorum, it could not convene so Yuan disbanded it on 10 January 1914.

1912 Republic of China National Assembly election Overview articles: 16

Voter and membership statistics

The inaugural meeting of the National Assembly in April 1913.
Province Population Voters % House
Members
Senate
Members
Chihli 25,932,133 9,195,757 35.46 46 10
Fengtian 12,133,303 896,408 7.39 16 10
Kiren 5,580,030 108,835 1.95 10 10
Heilungkiang 2,028,776 288,234 14.21 10 10
Kiangsu 32,282,781 1,939,386 6.01 40 10
Anhwei 16,229,052 1,450,901 8.94 27 10
Kiangsi 23,987,317 4,986,883 20.79 35 10
Chekiang 21,440,151 1,184,629 5.53 38 10
Fukien 15,849,296 1,283,348 8.10 24 10
Hupeh 25,590,308 5,670,370 22.16 26 10
Hunan 27,390,230 1,277,414 4.66 27 10
Shantung 30,987,853 1,368,184 4.42 33 10
Honan 35,900,038 1,688,632 4.70 32 10
Shansi 12,269,386 2,588,068 21.10 28 10
Shensi 10,271,096 1,395,622 2.98 21 10
Kansu 4,989,907 148,526 2.98 14 10
Szechwan 48,129,596 1,729,368 3.59 35 10
Kwantung 28,010,560 1,966,516 7.02 30 10
Kwangsi 8,746,747 2,731,717 31.23 19 10
Yunnan 9,466,965 233,398 8.20 22 10
Kweichow 9,665,227 792,290 8.20 13 10
Sinkiang 2,000,000 9,506 0.48 10 10
Mongolia & Tsinghai - - - 30 30
Tibet - - - 10 10
Oversea Chinese - - - - 6
Central Society - - - - 8
Total 406,880,486 42,933,992 10.50 596 274

Results

Party Senate House Total
seats
Seat %
Nationalist Party 132 269 392 45.06
Republican Party 46 120 175 20.11
Unity Party 6 18 24 2.76
Democratic Party 8 16 24 2.76
Multi-party candidates 38 147 185 21.26
Nonpartisan 44 26 70 8.05
Totals 274 596 870 100

See also

References

  1. ^ Cambridge History of China, Vol 12, Part 1: 222-223
  2. ^ a b Young, Ernest P. ""Politics in the Aftermath of Revolution: The Era of Yuan Shih-K'ai, 1912-16"". Cambridge History of China, Vol 12, Part 1. p. 222.

Bibliography