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15th century

Century

Top 10 15th century related articles

Millennium: 2nd millennium
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Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments
Ottoman's Mehmed II, the Islamic conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Various historians describe it as the end of the Middle Ages.
Gergio Deluci, Christopher Columbus arrives in America in 1492, 1893 painting.

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500. The term is often used to refer to the 1400s, the century between 1400 and 1499.

In Europe, the 15th century includes parts of the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. The architectural perspective and the field which is known today as accounting were founded in Italy.

Constantinople, known as the Capital of the World and the Capital of the Byzantine Empire (today's Turkey), falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.[1] This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the printing press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance.[2][3] The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion,[4] ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning Spain, Portugal and Southern France back to Christian rulers.

The search for the wealth and prosperity of India's Bengal Sultanate[5] led to the colonization of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the Portuguese voyages by Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires.

The Hundred Years' War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.

In Asia, the Timurid Empire collapsed, and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty is founded under the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle.

In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.

In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence, but the European colonization of the Americas changed the course of modern history.

Filippo Brunelleschi, regarded as one of the greatest engineers and architects of all time.

15th century Intro articles: 62

Events

Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years' War.

1400s

1410s

1420s

The renaissance king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. His mercenary standing army (the Black Army) had the strongest military potential of its era.

1430s

1440s

1450s

Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453
Detail of The Emperor's Approach showing the Xuande Emperor's royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China.
King Henry VII, (1457–1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor

1460s

The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan in 1461.
The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

1470s

1480s

1490s

Significant people

Monarchs (and closer relatives of Monarchs)

Military leaders (non-rulers)

Theologians and religious leaders

Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators

See links above for Italian Renaissance painting and Renaissance sculpture.

Literature

Musicians and composers

Exploration

Science, invention and philosophy

15th century Events articles: 185