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116th United States Congress

116th Congress of the United States

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116th United States Congress
115th ←
→ 117th
January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021
Senate PresidentMike Pence (R)
Senate President pro temChuck Grassley (R)
House SpeakerNancy Pelosi (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2020
2nd: January 3, 2020 – present
Opening day ceremonies
House Floor
Senate Floor

The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of the Presidency of Donald Trump. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress, and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.

In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first split Congress since the 113th Congress of 2013–2015, and the first Republican Senate/Democratic House split since the 99th Congress of 1985–1987. This Congress is the youngest incoming class by mean age in the past three cycles[1] and the most demographically diverse ever.

On May 1, 2020,[2] Justin Amash became the first member of Congress to represent a political party other than the Democrats or the Republicans since Rep. William Carney, who served as a Conservative before switching to the Republican Party in 1985. Amash joined the Libertarian Party after serving as an independent since July 4, 2019.[3]

116th United States Congress Intro articles: 9

Major events

House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment.
Chief Justice John Roberts presided over the Impeachment trial of Donald Trump

Major legislation

Enacted

Proposed

Vetoed

(With official titles)

116th United States Congress Major events articles: 2

Major resolutions

Adopted

Proposed

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.

Senate

Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 47 2 50 99 1
Begin (January 3, 2019) 45 2 52 99 1
January 8, 2019[a] 53 100 0
December 31, 2019[b] 52 99 1
January 6, 2020[b] 53 100 0
Latest voting share 47.0% 53.0%

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Libertarian Republican
End of previous Congress 196 0 0 236 432 3
Begin (January 3, 2019)[c] 235 0 0 199 434 1
January 23, 2019[d] 198 433 2
February 10, 2019[e] 197 432 3
May 21, 2019[d] 198 433 2
July 4, 2019[f] 1 197
September 10, 2019[c][e] 199 435 0
September 23, 2019[g] 198 434 1
October 1, 2019[h] 197 433 2
October 17, 2019[i] 234 432 3
November 3, 2019[j] 233 431 4
December 19, 2019[k] 232 198
January 13, 2020[l] 197 430 5
March 30, 2020[m] 196 429 6
April 29, 2020[i] 233 430 5
May 1, 2020[f] 0 1
May 12, 2020[j][g] 198 432 3
May 22, 2020[n] 197 431 4
June 23, 2020[h] 198 432 3
Latest voting share 53.9% 0.0% 0.2% 45.6%  
Non-voting members 3 1 0 2 6 0

116th United States Congress Major resolutions articles: 3

Leadership

Senate

Senate President
President pro tempore

Majority (Republican) Leadership

Minority (Democratic) Leadership

House of Representatives

House Speaker

Majority (Democratic) Leadership

Minority (Republican) Leadership

Demographics

Most members of this Congress are Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%. Other religions represented include Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.[26][27][28]

Senate

The Senate includes 74 men and 26 women — the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators are women; 14 states are represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 30 states are represented by 2 men. During the 116th Congress, Georgia had Johnny Isakson retire, and Kelly Loeffler was appointed. This increased the amount of women from 25 after the 2018 elections to 26. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 2 black, 2 Asian, and 1 multiracial (Black/Asian) senators. Additionally, 2 senators identify as LGBTQ+.[1][29]

House of Representatives

There are 101 women in the House, the largest number in history.[30] There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 American Indian. Seven identify as LGBTQ+.[31] Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest (30) and oldest (78) freshmen women in history.[32] Freshmen Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) are the first two Muslim women and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) are the first two female American Indian members.[33]

With the election of Carolyn Maloney as the first woman to chair the House Oversight Committee,[34] women now chair a record six House committees in a single Congress (out of 26 women to ever chair House committees in the history of Congress), including representatives Maxine Waters (Financial Services), Nita Lowey (Appropriations), Zoe Lofgren (Administration), Eddie Bernice Johnson (Science, Space and Technology) and Nydia Velázquez (Small Business), as well as Kathy Castor who chairs the Select Committee on the Climate Crisis.[34] In addition, women chair a record 39 House subcommittees. Lowey and Kay Granger are also the first women to serve as chair and ranking member of the same committee in the same Congress since the defunct Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop, which was chaired and populated entirely by congresswomen during its existence from 1967 to 1977.

Diversity of the freshman class

The demographics of the 116th U.S. Congress freshmen were more diverse than any previous incoming class.[35][36][37]

At least 25 new congressional representatives were Hispanic, Native American, or persons of color, and the incoming class included the first Native American women, the first Muslim women, and the youngest woman ever elected.[35] The 116th congress included more women elected to the House than any previous congress.[36][37]

116th United States Congress Leadership articles: 17

Members

Senate

The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

House of Representatives

For further information, see List of current members of the United States House of Representatives.

116th United States Congress Members articles: 1088