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chromosome definition

Overview

This page has two definitions of chromosome in English and French. Chromosome is a noun. Examples of how to use chromosome in a sentence are shown. Also define these 4 related words and terms: cytology, genetics, biology, and chromosome.

English chromosome definition

An illustration of chromosome, with its parts. (1) Chromatid. One of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere. The point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short arm (4) Long arm.

Etymology

19th century: from German Chromosom, ultimately from Ancient Greek χρῶμα (khrôma, colour) + σῶμα (sôma, body) (because they are stained under the microscope). Equivalent to chromo- +‎ -some.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈkɹəʊ.məˌsəʊm/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈkɹoʊməˌsoʊm/, /ˈkɹoʊməˌzoʊm/
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Noun

chromosome (plural chromosomes)

  1. (cytology, genetics) A linear arrangement of condensed DNA and associated proteins (such as chaperone proteins) which contains the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
    • 2019, Bill Bryson, The Body: A Guide for Occupants, Black Swan (2020), page 7:
      A length of DNA is divided into segments called chromosomes and shorter individual units called genes.
    Chromosomes store genetic information.

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Further reading


French chromosome definition

Etymology

19th century: chromo- +‎ -some, from German Chromosom, ultimately from Ancient Greek χρῶμα (khrôma, colour) + σῶμα (sôma, body) (because they are stained under the microscope).

Pronunciation

Noun

chromosome m (plural chromosomes)

  1. (biology, cytology) chromosome
    • Chromosome definition
      A linear arrangement of condensed DNA and associated proteins (such as chaperone proteins) which contains the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Holonyms

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Further reading